Heaven is a different place for everyone; hell, at least this particular one, we inhabit in common. Remember: the destructive impulse is also a creative one. See also: ne plus ultra edition.
A manifesto for building a new world that should be on the bookshelf of every idealist, student, punk rocker, worker and ex-worker, poet, and lover. Less of a novel and more of an exploded manifesto, this might be just what we need. Glorious, even for the most cynical reader. What more can we ask from a book? Less of a novel and more of an exploded manifesto, Days of War, Nights of Love might be just what we need.
Such voracious stealing from history and applying as needed becomes not just a practice, but a saving grace. By never labeling themselves punks or new Dadaists and instead stealing all manner of praxis and pranks, CrimethInc. Topics range from anarchy to hierarchy, work to sex, alienation to liberation and technology, but every page burns with a passion for a freer life. Lies, exaggerations and blatant plagiarisms mix freely with passionate arguments.
Other essays walk a precarious line between arrogant and inspiring: activists are taken to task for being dull and guilty; radicals and artists as excrement peddlers, forever squirreling moments away for their next product.
III The Chelyabinsk meteor is believed to be the largest natural space object to enter the Earths atmosphere since the Tunguska event that took place in a remote part of Siberia. The Chelyabinsk meteors explosion released times as much energy as the atomic bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima during World War II.
IV Following the explosion, fragments of the meteor continued towards Lake Chebarkul. Several small fragments were later discovered in snowdrifts by local residents and schoolchildren. The largest fragment, which measured two feet and weighed kilograms poundswas raised from the bottom of the lake a few months later. V All of the reported injuries were not caused by the meteor itself, but rather due to indirect effects such as glass windows that shattered when the shockwave from the explosion arrived.
The intense light from the meteor also caused injuries; several hospitals reported patients seeking treatment for eye pain or ultraviolet burns. VI Yulia Karbysheva, a substitute teacher, managed to prevent 44 students from getting injured. After seeing the intense flash of light, she instructed the children to stay away from the windows and hide under their desks.
When the shockwave arrived, she was showered with glass and debris and suffered several cuts and gashes. All the children were unharmed and were safely evacuated.
I Although Neil Armstrong is the most prominent figure from the Apollo 11 moon landing, there arent actually that many pictures of him taken during that entire mission. Most of the astronaut pictures that you see online and on science or history books were actually that of his colleague, Buzz Aldrin. The famous footage of Neil stepping on the moon for the first time is actually a video of a monitor playing the original footage. A team of retired NASA employees tried to find the missing tapes in the early s but failed.
III Buzz and Neil were both so excited to take their first step on the moon that they decided to contact mission control to ask for permission to skip their scheduled nap.
Mission control granted their request but told the astronauts to go to sleep as soon as they finished their mission. IV Although Buzz and Neil became famous for being the first humans on the moon, they werent the only astronauts on the mission. Michael Collins was the third astronaut and the command module pilot for Apollo He had to stay in orbit around the moon while his two colleagues left in the Apollo Lunar Module to make the first crewed moon landing.
V The US Government was well aware of how dangerous the Apollo 11 mission was and knew that there was a possibility that the astronauts wouldnt be able to return home. President Nixon had actually prepared a speech in the event of a tragedy.
Fortunately, the mission was a success, and the disaster speech was not needed. VI After the astronauts successfully landed back on Earth, they were rubbed down with a sodium hypochlorite solution and were placed under quarantine. While the possibility of them bringing back pathogens from the moon were remote, NASA took precaution and only gave the three men a clean bill of health after 21 days. On this day, Allied forces invaded Normandy, marking the start of a historic crusade to liberate France and the rest of Western Europe from Nazi control.
It is widely regarded as the biggest amphibious invasion in history. II Normandy was chosen by British and American strategists as the D-Day landing site due to its conveniently-located port and close distance to warplanes that were stationed in England. This location was also chosen because the Allied forces wanted to launch a surprise attack on the Germans, who were expecting that Allied forces would attack parts of France that were closer to the U.
Unfortunately, this rehearsal ended in tragedy when German forces found out about the mock invasion and torpedoed American tank landing ships, killing U. They were accompanied by thousands of nautical vessels and aircraft, far outnumbering the Germans. V Hitler was still asleep when the invasion of Normandy began at AM because he had been up until AM to entertain guests such as Joseph Goebbels at his home in the Alps.
By the time he was roused from sleep at Album), the Allied assault was well underway. Eisenhower who would later become U. Although the Soviet Union fought alongside the United States and other Allied forces, there was a level of distrust between the Soviet Union and other Allied countries, who were concerned about the brutal leadership of Joseph Stalin and the rise of communism.
Inthe Soviet Union detonated the Tsar Bomba King of the Bombsthe largest nuclear weapon the world had ever seen. It remains to be the most powerful to have ever been detonated. To combat this, the CIA developed a special method of communication using everyday items like shoelaces.
Depending on how their agents shoelaces were tied, the patterns could convey messages like I have information, Follow me, or I have brought another person.
As part of an experiment, the CIA drugged bread that was sold in a bakery in France. Several people had to be institutionalized after experiencing hallucinations and other serious side effects. IV Working women were considered a threat to national security during the Cold War.
During this time, women were encouraged to stay home and raise their children, so that the next generation would be able to defend the United States in case the Soviet Union attacked. V The Hollywood blacklist, implemented during the midth century, was the practice of denying employment to those in the entertainment industry who were believed to be Communists or sympathizers.
Then-actor Ronald Reagan, who would later become president, was among those who made allegations or participated in weeding out communists in the industry. If the Soviet Union were to attack any of its members, the other countries would defend them. I The ill-fated airship Hindenburg, which caught fire and crashed in New Jersey on May 6,was carrying 97 people on its final voyage.
The disaster claimed 36 lives 13 passengers, 22 crewmen, and one worker on the ground. Many of the 62 survivors jumped out of the windows and ran to escape the burning airship. II Despite being filled with 7 million cubic feet of extremely flammable hydrogen gas, the Hindenburg still had a smoking room for its passengers. The room was pressurized and had a double door entrance to prevent any hydrogen from entering.
Passengers could only use a special electric lighter inside and a steward needed to make sure that no one left with a lit cigarette or pipe. III Although the Hindenburg disaster was the most famous airship disaster, there were actually two other incidents with higher mortality rates.
The helium-filled U. Akron, a U. Navy airship, crashed near New Jersey on April 4,killing 73 people. Inthe crash of the British military airship R killed 48 people. IV Airships were also used to deliver mail across the Atlantic.
During its final voyage, The Hindenburg carried around 17, letters and documents. One hundred seventy-six were stored in a special protective box which survived the disaster. The surviving letters and documents were postmarked four days after the crash and were eventually delivered. Hugo Eckener, the head of the Zeppelin factory in Wrttemberg, Germany, did not support the Nazi party and decided to name the airship after former German president Paul von Hindenburg instead.
VI The now-famous emotional account of the disaster by the Chicago-based radio reporter Herbert Morrison was not broadcast live - actually taped and was only heard on the radio in Chicago later that night.
His audio report was synchronized with newsreel videos and played by media outlets during subsequent coverage of the disaster. The company was given a 2. II At the time of its introduction inthe Lusitania was the largest passenger ship in the world. It also broke records on its second voyage in October for being the first ship to cross the Atlantic Ocean in less than five days.
Both of these records were later broken by its sister ship, the RMS Mauretania. War munitions were hidden on the Lusitania, but the ship was never used as an AMC due to the large amount of coal that it consumed. IV The Lusitania carried a total of 1, passengers and crew on its final voyage from the port of New York to Liverpool on May 1, Most of the passengers were British nationals, plus several Canadians and Americans.
Commander William Thomas Turner was the captain of the ship. V It only took the Lusitania 18 minutes to sink after it was hit by a German torpedo. Due to the speed at which the sinking took place, only six of the 48 lifeboats were successfully launched.
As a result, of the people on board were killed. Some of these notable passengers include Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt an American sportsman and businessman who was a member of the Vanderbilt familyElbert Hubbard American writer and producerand Frances McIntosh Stephens a prominent socialite from Montreal.
I The longest-serving UK prime minister since was Margaret Thatcher, who served between and She is followed by Tony Blair, who was prime minister from to However, the longest-serving prime minister of all time was Sir Robert Walpole, who served from to II The shortest-serving prime minister in modern times was Alec Douglas-Home, who served as prime minister between Nights Of Love - Sentence (6) - Sentence (CDr 19,to October 16, He took over as prime minister after the resignation of Harold Macmillan, before losing in the election to Harold Wilson a little less than a year later.
III A survey by the University of Leeds in ranked prime ministers since on various performance indicators. Anthony Eden, who was in office fromwas found to be the worst-performing prime minister, with a score of just 2. Clement Attlee, who was prime minister fromhad the highest score of 8. IV Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, who was prime minister in, andis recognized by the Guinness World Records as the wealthiest prime minister.
He had a personal fortune that was worth around 7 million, or the equivalent of million in todays terms. V Some prime ministers were known to have strange eating habits.
Gordon Brown enjoyed three to four KitKats a day, before later switching to eight or nine bananas. David Brown enjoyed malt loaf fried in hazelnut butter and dusted with sugar. Tony Blair and Margaret Thatcher cut carbs to lose weight, with Thatcher eating 28 eggs per week.
VI Margaret Thatcher only slept for four hours each night and would keep her colleagues up until the early hours of the morning. Her successor, John Major, had a more regular sleep schedule, and he initially found it difficult to keep up with other civil servants who had already gotten used to his predecessors schedule. I The word 'renaissance' comes from the French word for 'rebirth'.
The Renaissance period is well-known for its revival of interest in the cultures of ancient Greece and Rome. This led to an artistic revival of classical antiquity. French scholar, Jules Michelet, was the first historian to use and define the term renaissance in his work, "Histoire de France. The Renaissance is said to have started in Florence during the 14th century and soon spread all over Italy.
Italy, during the time, did not exist as a political unit but was comprised of city-states. These city-states were prosperous centers of industry, dealing in products such as clothing and arms. On May 29,an invading army of the Ottoman Empire captured Constantinople. This led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, which in turn, fueled the Renaissance. At aroundJohannes Gutenberg created mechanical, movable type printing in Europe, thus initiating the printing revolution.
IV The Renaissance is based intellectually on its own version of humanism. Humanism is a philosophy that focuses on the value of human beings as well as their capabilities.
The humanism of the Renaissance was based on ancient Greco-Roman philosophies. Renaissance humanism revolves around poetry, history, rhetoric, moral philosophy, and grammar. V Petrarch is known as the father of the Renaissance. Francesco Petrarca known as Petrarchwas a 14th-century Italian scholar and poet. He described the years that spanned between his time and the fall of the Roman Empire in the 6th century as dark because it was a time of stagnation and humans continually failed to reach the fullest of their intellectual and creative potential.
VI While the Renaissance period inspired a lot of developments across many fields, it is most famous for its artistic achievements. The art of the Renaissance exercised a dominant influence on all that followed. The Italian painter and architect from Florence, Giotto di Bondone, is known as the first of many artists who made contributions to the Renaissance. There is even a type of tax that has been given the moniker sin tax.
The so-called sin tax is, legally speaking, an excise tax, which is basically a tax levied on betting, alcoholic beverages, and cigarettes. However, when he finally wound up in a jail cell init was not for committing murder, since the federal authorities lacked solid proof that Capone had killed anyone. As an alternative, the state put Capone on trial and found him guilty of tax evasion. III It is projected that about nine out of every ten people in the US who hire nannies and housekeepers do not pay the necessary taxes.
And if you're in Alabama, you'd better remember to pay that playing card tax. Alabama is the only US state in which a set of cards will cost you an additional 10 cents to cover the antiquated playing card tax. While it may seem strange, this tax has a green purpose: it was designed to minimize greenhouse gas emissions and help in the crucial battle against climate change.
This is all thanks to excise taxes levied by both the state and the city. VI Although cryptocurrency features the word currency in it, the Internal Revenue Service does not consider it to be a currency at all. As an alternative, the government agency categorizes it as property and it is taxed in the same way as stocks, regardless of its utilization in the purchase and sale of goods.
The Protestant Reformation or "the Reformation" as it is commonly referred to, was a religious revolution in Europe during the 16th century that caused a split in the Catholic Church. Martin Luther was the most famous personality to come out of the Reformation. They too worked to make changes in the church on matters like the accessibility of Scripture, papal reform, and free preaching during the 15th century. These men died as martyrs for their beliefs, and their movements did not spread the way Luther's did.
IV The Protestant Reformation fuelled the spread of literacy because among its many doctrines was the need for people to access Scripture and engage in personal piety. Catechisms were also essential reading for the youth. In Germany alone, the literacy rates ranged between just 5 to 30 percent before the Reformation. V The Anabaptist tradition, also recognized as the Radical Reformation, emphasized the calling and the role of the Holy Spirit in the believer's life, and hence included women as ministers, not excluding preaching roles.
Leaders like Ursula of Essen, Agnes Linck and Maria of Monjou were persecuted and martyred for their leadership positions. VI Part of the attempt of the Roman Catholic church to stop the spread and influence of the Reformation also known as the Counter-Reformation was to increase the complexity and vibrancy of its music, architecture, and art.
It aimed to draw the public away from the more boring approach of the Protestants towards art, worship, and liturgy.
Starting from June 20,and continuing until the Queen's passing on January 22,this period flowed on from the Georgian era and preceded the Edwardian Era. In terms of ideology, the Victorian era saw a refusal to accept the rationalism characteristic of the Georgian period, and a growing shift towards romanticism and even mysticism when it came to religious beliefs, social standards, and art. II Mourning the death of a loved one during the Victorian Era was a strange yet serious event.
Women would wear mourning rings crafted out of onyx or jet, along with locks of hair from the dead person. There were even those who kept their tears of grief inside bottles. Usually, women were paid to be present at the burial area of a bachelor, typically blonde, to weep desolately so the lonely man would appear cherished.
III Throughout the Victorian Era, hypnosis, the divine, and all forms of spiritualism played a huge part in the lives of Victorians. People would participate as often as they could in festivities that featured fortune tellers, hypnotists, and individuals who claimed to have the means to commune with the dead.
It was a profitable business during the time, one littered with clever charlatans and high-earning actors. IV Taxidermy likewise enjoyed a place of importance during the Victorian Era. People would assemble Taxidermy collections in their homes, especially favoring the work of renowned craftsmen like Walter Potter, who is known for his fascinating creations like kittens engaged in a tea party.
Black was a popular color in Victorian fashion as it was the best way to combat the discoloring effects that pollution had on light-colored clothing. V 'Freak shows' were another favorite pastime of the period. For Victorians, buying a ticket for a 'freak show' was as easy as purchasing a movie ticket today. The people of the Victorian era also followed a strange practice in which every time a member of the family passed away, they would take a photograph with the lifeless body.
VI Victorian corsets are nearly impossible to wear by anyone these days. This is because the Victorian way was to squeeze a person's waist to as tight as just 16 inches. As a result, the body structure was altered, bringing about a wide array of medical problems, including difficulty breathing and even complications when giving birth. The Axis, on the other hand, consisted of Germany, Italy, and Japan. There were also countries who chose to remain neutral, including Sweden and Switzerland.
With the Nazi Party under his command, Hitler had one overriding goal: for Germany to have supreme power over the entire European continent.
So Germany could extend its borders and control, Hitler ordered its military to invade Poland on the 1st of September, Following Hitler's refusal to halt his advancement, Britain and France declared war on Germany, signaling the official start of the Second World War. During the same period, Japan planned its rule over Asia and the Pacific. Indeed, they had already invaded China inbefore the Second World War had even begun. IV Countless German citizens were sent to prison camps and put to death simply because they were unable to suit the image of the perfect German.
Hitler yearned to establish a superior race of people who all bore what he saw as optimal features. For his Nazi Party, this disqualified particular segments of German society, including the Jews, Gypsies and those who were physically and mentally disabled. The same treatment was applied within other countries Hitler invaded. V The people most harshly persecuted by Hitler and his Nazi party were the Jews.
Approximately six million Jews were executed during the Second World War in what is considered to be one of the most horrifying events in recorded history: the Holocaust. He led a propaganda crusade that accused Jewish people of endangering German culture and society. A year later, their troops crossed the borders of Germany and forced the country to surrender.
Following two nuclear bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan likewise submitted to the Allied forces in August of the same year. This marked the end of the Second World War. I Every day within these trenches, soldiers operated amidst a grim cloud of darkness, enduring the smell of dirt and rotting flesh. There were massive rats to contend with, bursting latrines, and swarms of lice.
Not to mention the corpses piling up alongside those still living in the ditches. From time to time, soldiers manning the Front Line would be ordered to leave the trenches and head towards No Man's Land the area in the middle of both trench sides in an attempt to drive off enemy forces.
It was the first time destructive new weapons and machines of war were utilized on all fronts. Unfortunately, this resulted in countless deaths and horrendous injuries. In Great Britain, people would regularly hear the thunderous voice of war calling out across the English Channel from Europe.
The sound came from the artillery shells that were bombarding the Western Front. It has gone down as one of the bloodiest encounters on record, waged between the combined military forces of France and Britain against those of Germany. The battle took place on the banks of the Somme river in France and lasted for five exhausting months. More than a million people were killed or wounded. The Battle of the Somme also has the dubious honor of having endured the first use of tanks in combat.
However, not all of them joined in on the Revolution. All told, it was 13 colonies who ended up taking part. The War for Independence against the British lasted from to II One of the main reasons the colonists fought against Great Britain was that they felt they had no representation in the British parliament. The English government was laying down new taxes and laws on the colonies while giving them no platform to have a say in the matter.
If they were going to pay taxes to the crown and live under British rule, they felt they deserved to at least have the opportunity to speak for themselves. III War did not happen immediately. There were arguments, protests, and a few interesting skirmishes between colonists and the local British army. Over the years, things continued to worsen until Great Britain and the colonies found themselves at war. IV Every American colony had an independent government. In they elected officials to have them represented at the First Continental Congress.
In this way, the colonies hoped to make one united government. V The new government of the United States was not like the government of its homeland. They wholeheartedly rejected the idea of having a king as their ruler. The colonies wanted a government that was ruled by people.
This new form of governance would be democratic, with leaders elected by the people and balances of power to ensure no one party could take despotic hold of the nation. VI The first shot fired during the American Revolution was on April 19,and is now famously referred to as the shot heard round the world.
John Adams was the defense attorney for the British soldiers who were involved in the Boston Massacre. He later became a great leader in the Revolution and also the 2nd president of the United States. I The French Revolution was a time of social and political rebellion in France, which started in and was caused by the inequalities between the poor and the rich. This structure was a royal fort that had been turned into a prison. II The Revolution went on untilleading to the disbanding of the French royal family, a government change, armed conflicts with other countries in Europe, the execution of Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI, and the start of Napoleon Bonaparte's rule in France.
III Before the French Revolution, peasants were so poor and the cost of food so high, that a lot of them starved to death.
A single loaf of bread, for example, cost a week's wages. The rich were born rich, and the poor were born poor, meaning people could not work to become wealthy, as we can nowadays, you had to be born with it or forever miss out. IV The poor in France were starving while the wealthy lived an extravagant lifestyle. The imbalance caused seething anger and resentment.
The poor paid taxes to the king while the rich did not. Only seven prisoners were found in the Bastille when the revolutionaries stormed it.
V The revolutionaries were looking for gunpowder when they stormed the Bastille. They were not interested in the prisoners. These religions were forbidden until after the French Revolution when worshippers were finally allowed to practice as they saw fit.
The French Revolution came to a close with the freeing of 10, African slaves. Before this, many aristocrats were spectacularly put to death via the guillotine. I The Industrial Revolution came in stages spanning from the late 18th century to the early 20th century. The people of this time saw rapid growth in industrial production and mechanization, leading to monumental changes in their society.
The first stage of this massive upheaval was all about water, steam, iron, and agricultural production methods. During the second phase, the focus shifted to petrol engines, electricity, cheap steal manufacturing, and oil.
II New technologies radically changed the speed of transporting goods and people. The first intercity railway was constructed in between Manchester and Liverpool. More soon followed, allowing freight transport times and costs to diminish rapidly.
Init took around four days to travel from Manchester to London. By it only took four hours. The development of the steam engine was a significant achievement. It made steam trains possible, but also steam-powered pumps and machines, all of which allowed for increased labor productivity. IV Revolution in the agricultural industry made higher food output possible from just a few farm workers.
This led to a surplus of laborers who were able to go and work in factories. The revolution in agriculture came about because of new techniques such as selective breeding, crop rotation, economies of scale from better transport, and bigger farms. V Growth in global trade was massive. This growth was fueled by the effective shipping practices of Britain and its Empire, which became a valuable source of raw materials.
Edmund Cartwright's power loom made mass production of cloth possible. The steam engine also transformed the cotton industry and later on, steam trains.
VI Smelting was a new method of producing iron, developed by Abraham Darby. This unique method made use of coke instead of charcoal, thus enabling higher production. Iron was a vital component in the construction of railways, buildings, factories, and more.
Steam trains, machine tools, chemicals, cement, and tarmacked roads were a common sight during the industrial revolution. The men responsible for its development were E. Swinton and Maurice Hankey. The tank rolled 26 tons of weight onto the battlefield and came equipped with millimeter armaments.
It was capable of traveling at a top speed of 3. The tank's ominous form was first seen rumbling towards trenches ina time when the use of such machines in combat was rare. II Throughout the First World War, German forces developed powerful strategies for dealing with tanks and succeeded in destroying nearly three-quarters of the entire Allied tank fleet in just four days during the Battle of Amiens in The Tank Corps of the Empire of Britain, which was composed of more than tanks, was decimated to a mere six units after the fourth day of the battle.
Allied forces had been attempting to advance cavalry and light-armored tanks to the front lines of the battle. The encounter took place in Kursk, Russia in July of and included approximately 23, tanks and more than 4 million military personnel.
After the Battle of Kursk, Germany suffered a total of tank casualties while Russia lost more than units. Russian soldiers saw their T tanks decimated by the superior Tiger and Panzer tanks of Germany.
IV Inteams from 17 countries including Angola, Kuwait, Nicaragua, China, India, and Venezuela participated in a friendly yet competitive tank event that took place in Russia. The home squad got the title after securing all 13 victories of different categories in the competition. Every participant country, excluding China, entered the tournament with the TB3. China chose to bring its Type 96A armored fleet for the competition.
V The encounter between Israeli and Syrian forces at Golan Heights on October 13,is considered the most legendary tank combat in history. The Israeli defense force, composed of just 3, soldiers, tanks and 60 artillery units, managed to derail a military offensive from a fully equipped Syrian army that had a total might of 28, troops, tanks, and artillery pieces.
VI The Second Cavalry Regiment of the United States Military utilized the best and most advanced weaponry and training of its time to overpower an overwhelming sandstorm and eliminate hundreds of tanks commanded by the Republican Guards of Iraq. The event is one of the most analyzed tank battles in contemporary history and is, in fact, considered the only memorable tank encounter of the 20th century.
He was a mythological priest-king who lived in some secretive part of the East who could supposedly help the Crusaders get Jerusalem back. II One of the first Europeans to make it to Indonesia, proving that Asia could be reached by sailing around Africa, was an Italian merchant by the name of Nicolo de Conti. This Album) Venetian continued to explore the Middle East and South Asia for 25 years, starting from III Many ancient mariners traveled by charting and sticking closely to coastal areas.
Vessels of the time were designed for hugging the coast. Nighttime travel was accomplished by using stars like the North Star as a point of navigational reference.
Among the most significant problems with traveling southward along the Coast of Africa was that the North Star was no longer visible to sailors once they passed the equator. IV Mariners during the Age of Exploration calculated their latitude by using a cross-staff to measure the behavior of the sun at midday. The cross-staff was a handy graduated stick that had a moving part which could be aligned with the horizon to measure the angle of elevation of the sun.
V The first compasses were believed to be some form of black magic or sorcery, and early sea captains usually only sought their guidance in private quarters.
In the time of Columbus, navigators faced the potential of having to defend themselves before the Inquisition if they were caught using a compass. Compass defenders pointed out that it formed a holy cross and so surely couldn't be the devil's work. VI Large ships were usually home to or so crew members.
This motley crew included soldiers, sailors, cooks, craftsmen, smiths, coopers, latrine cleaners, swabbers, and musicians. The work of the captain was highly respected and regarded as a professional position. Other posts included master, quartermaster, master carpenter, boatswain, and coxswain. There was also a plentiful supply of deputies and mates. I You might be surprised to hear that Andrew Johnson, the 17th president of the U. Or that George Washington was fond of eating ice cream while Jimmy Carter, the 39th president, grew peanuts for a living.
Ronald Reagan, the president who followed Jimmy, was originally a film actor. And honest Abe? He used to chop rails for making fences before he became the 16th president of the United States of America.
II Barack Obama had a strong affinity for basketball, a fact he didn't keep secret. The team that won the NBA Finals during each year of his presidency would typically be invited to visit the White House as Obama's guests.
Based on intel from one of his high school basketball mates, however, the 43rd president was given the moniker Barry Obomber because he had a penchant for taking tough shots which he almost always missed. III George W. Bush Sr. They passed away just months from each other, inafter a fruitful 73 years of marriage; the longest of all presidential couples. The next longest record is 54 years, held by John Adams and his wife, Abigail.
Ford's team became the successive national champions in andduring his second and third year at college. After completing his studies, he rejected bids from two professional football clubs, the Detroit Lions and the Green Bay Packers. Instead, Ford accepted a coaching stint at Yale University, as he was hoping to enroll in their law school. V Lyndon Johnson raised a pair of beagles named Him and Her.
Both pets garnered national celebrity status after being included in almost all of the president's photoshoots. The beagle duo featured in a profile piece in the issue of Life magazine, which said, not many dogs have been privileged to shoo birds off the White House lawn, get underfoot at a Cabinet meeting, or mingle with dignitaries at a state ball. VI Theodore Roosevelt hired a famous portrait artist from France named Theobald Chartran to take his image down on canvas.
Speaking of the creation process to the New York Times, Chartran said, it was difficult to get the president to sit still. The interview took place just before the portrait went on display in France in Chartran continued, I never had a more restless or more charming sitter.
Roosevelt wasn't so fond of seeing himself frozen on canvas. After concealing the painting in a dim hallway of the White House for several years, he ultimately threw it to the fire. I It's easy to concentrate on the horses when you're viewing a race, but the jockey's form is just as vital. Weight limitations for riders in America typically range from to pounds, depending on the event.
When we're talking about the Kentucky Derby, jockeys are allowed to pack on as much as pounds of weight. While this is already low, the limitation includes every bit of their outfit and equipment. Such restrictions necessitate strict diet regimes within the profession, and starvation methods are sadly not uncommon. Egyptian forces then consolidated their initial positions. In the north, the Egyptian 18th Division attacked the town of El-Qantarah el-Sharqiyyaengaging Israeli forces in and around the town.
The fighting there was conducted at close quarters, and was sometimes hand-to-hand. The Egyptians were forced to clear the town building by building. By evening, most of the town was in Egyptian hands. El-Qantarah was completely cleared by the next morning. Meanwhile, the Egyptian commandos airdropped on October 6 began encountering Israeli reserves the following morning.
Both sides suffered heavy losses, but the commandos were at times successful in delaying the movement of Israeli reserves to the front. These special operations often led to confusion and anxiety among Israeli commanders, who commended the Egyptian commandos. Of the 1, Egyptian commandos inserted behind Israeli lines during the war, were killed—many in downed helicopters—and taken prisoner. On October 7, David Elazar visited Shmuel Gonencommander of the Israeli Southern front—who had only taken the position three months before at the retirement of Ariel Sharon —and met with Israeli commanders.
The Israelis planned a cautious counterattack for the following day by Abraham Adan 's nd Armored Division. Seven Egyptian airbases were damaged with the loss of two A-4 Skyhawks and their pilots. Two more planned attacks were called off because of the increasing need for air power on the Syrian front.
The IAF carried out additional air attacks against Egyptian forces on the east bank of the canal, reportedly inflicting heavy losses. Israeli jets had carried out hundreds of sorties against Egyptian targets by the following day, but the Egyptian SAM shield inflicted heavy losses.
IAF aircraft losses mounted to three aircraft for every sorties, an unsustainable rate. The Israelis responded by rapidly devising new tactics to thwart Egyptian air defenses. On October 8, after Elazar had left, Gonen changed the plans on the basis of unduly optimistic field reports. Adan's division was composed of three brigades totaling tanks. One of the brigades was still en route to the area, and would participate in the attack by noon, along with a supporting mechanized infantry brigade with an additional 44 tanks.
In a series of ill-coordinated attacks which were met by stiff resistance from Egyptian tanks, artillery, and infantry armed with anti-tank rockets, the Israelis were repulsed with heavy losses.
An initial Israeli attack by some 25 tanks broke through the first Egyptian troops and managed to come within meters 2, feet of the canal before coming under withering fire. The Israelis lost 18 tanks within minutes and most of the commanders were killed or wounded. This was followed by a second attack by elements of two Israeli brigades, which had communication and coordination problems. The Egyptians allowed the Israelis to advance and then encircled them in a prepared kill zone before opening fire, destroying most of the Israeli force within 13 minutes.
The Egyptians destroyed over 50 Israeli tanks and captured eight intact. That afternoon, Egyptian forces advanced once more to deepen their bridgeheads, and as a result the Israelis lost several strategic positions. Further Israeli attacks to regain the lost ground proved futile.
Garwych, citing Egyptian sources, documented Egyptian tank losses up to October 13 at According to Herzog, by October 9 the front lines had stabilized. The Egyptians were unable to advance further,  and Egyptian armored attacks on October 9 and 10 were repulsed with heavy losses. However, this claim was disputed by Shazly, who claimed that the Egyptians continued to advance and improve their positions well into October He pointed to one engagement, which involved elements of the 1st Infantry Brigade, attached to the 19th Division, which captured Ayoun Mousa, south of Suez.
Leaving the safety of the SAM umbrella, the force was attacked by Israeli aircraft and suffered heavy losses. Between October 10 and 13, both sides refrained from any large-scale actions, and the situation was relatively stable.
Both sides launched small-scale attacks, and the Egyptians used helicopters to land commandos behind Israeli lines. Some Egyptian helicopters were shot down, and those commando forces that managed to land were quickly destroyed by Israeli troops. In one key engagement on October 13, a particularly large Egyptian incursion was stopped and close to a hundred Egyptian commandos were killed.
General Shazly strongly opposed any eastward advance that would leave his armor without adequate air cover. He was overruled by General Ismail and Sadat, whose aims were to seize the strategic Mitla and Gidi Passes and the Israeli nerve centre at Refidim, which they hoped would relieve pressure on the Syrians who were by now on the defensive by forcing Israel to shift divisions from the Golan to the Sinai. The 2nd and 3rd Armies were ordered to attack eastward in six simultaneous thrusts over a broad front, leaving behind five infantry divisions to hold the bridgeheads.
The attacking forces, consisting of  —1, tanks  would not have SAM cover, so the Egyptian Air Force EAF was tasked with the defense of these forces from Israeli air attacks. Armored and mechanized units began the attack on October 14 with artillery support.
They were up against  —  Israeli tanks. Preparatory to the tank attack, Egyptian helicopters set down commandos near the Lateral Road to disrupt the Israeli rear. An Israeli reconnaissance unit quickly subdued them, killing 60 and taking numerous prisoners.
Still bruised by the extensive losses their commandos had suffered on the opening day of the war, the Egyptians were unable or unwilling to implement further commando operations that had been planned in conjunction with the armored attack.
Instead of concentrating forces of maneuvering, except for the wadi thrust, Egyptian units launched head-on-attacks against the waiting Israeli defenses.
The Egyptian attack was decisively repelled. At least Egyptian tanks     and some armored vehicles  were destroyed.
Egyptian casualties exceeded 1, Kenneth Pollack credited a successful Israeli commando raid early on October 14 against an Egyptian signals-intercept site at Jebel Ataqah with seriously disrupting Egyptian command and control and contributing to its breakdown during the engagement.
With the situation on the Syrian front stabilizing, the Israeli High Command agreed that the time was ripe for an Israeli counterattack and strike across the canal. General Sharon advocated an immediate crossing at Deversoir at the northern edge of Great Bitter Lake.
On October 9, a reconnaissance force attached to Colonel Amnon Reshef's Brigade detected a gap between the Egyptian Second and Third armies in this sector. However, given the size of the Egyptian armored reserves, the Israelis chose to wait for an opportunity that would allow them to reduce Egyptian armored strength before initiating any crossing.
The opportunity arrived on October 12, when Israeli intelligence detected signs that the Egyptians were gearing up for a major armored thrust. They could finally utilize their advantages in speed, maneuver and tank gunnery, areas in which they excelled. Once Egyptian armored strength was sufficiently degraded, the Israelis would commence their own canal crossing.
The Israelis immediately followed the Egyptian failed attack of October 14 with a multidivisional counterattack through the gap between the Egyptian 2nd and 3rd Armies. Sharon's rd Division, now reinforced with a paratroop brigade commanded by Colonel Danny Mattwas tasked with establishing bridgeheads on the east and west banks of the canal.
The nd and nd Armored Divisions, commanded by Generals Avraham Adan and Kalman Magen respectively, would then cross through the breach to the west bank of the canal and swing southward, encircling the 3rd Army.
On the night of October 15, of Colonel Matt's paratroopers crossed the canal in rubber dinghies. The force encountered no resistance initially and fanned out in raiding parties, attacking supply convoys, SAM sites, logistic centers and anything of military value, with priority given to the SAMs. Attacks on SAM sites punched a hole in the Egyptian anti-aircraft screen and enabled the Israeli Air Force to strike Egyptian ground targets more aggressively. On the night of October 15, 20 Israeli tanks and 7 APCs under the command of Colonel Haim Erez crossed the canal and penetrated 12 kilometres into mainland Egypt, taking the Egyptians by surprise.
For the first 24 hours, Erez's force attacked SAM sites and military columns with impunity, including a major raid on Egyptian missile bases on 16 October, in which three Egyptian missile bases were destroyed along with several tanks for no Israeli losses.
On the morning of October 17, the force was attacked by the 23rd Egyptian Armored Brigade, but managed to repulse the attack.
By this time, the Syrians no longer posed a credible threat and the Israelis were able to shift their air power to the south in support of the offensive. The Egyptian bridges across the canal were damaged in Israeli air and artillery attacks.
Israeli jets began attacking Egyptian SAM sites and radars, prompting General Ismail to withdraw much of the Egyptians' air defense equipment. This in turn gave the IAF still greater freedom to operate in Egyptian airspace. Israeli jets also attacked and destroyed underground communication cables at Banha in the Nile Deltaforcing the Egyptians to transmit selective messages by radio, which could be intercepted.
Aside from the cables at Banha, Israel refrained from attacking economic and strategic infrastructure following an Egyptian threat to retaliate against Israeli cities with Scud missiles. Israeli aircraft bombed Egyptian Scud batteries at Port Said several times. The Egyptian Air Force attempted to interdict IAF sorties and attack Israeli ground forces, but suffered heavy losses in dogfights and from Israeli air defenses, while inflicting light aircraft losses on the Israelis.
The heaviest air battles took place over the northern Nile Delta, where the Israelis repeatedly attempted to destroy Egyptian airbases. Despite the success the Israelis were having on the west bank, Generals Bar-Lev and Elazar ordered Sharon to concentrate on securing the bridgehead on the east bank.
He was ordered to clear the roads leading to the canal as well as a position known as the Chinese Farmjust north of Deversoir, the Israeli crossing point. Sharon objected and requested permission to expand and breakout of the bridgehead on the west bank, arguing that such a maneuver would cause the collapse of Egyptian forces on the east bank. But the Israeli high command was insistent, believing that until the east bank was secure, forces on the west bank could be cut off.
Sharon was overruled by his superiors and relented. Other IDF forces attacked entrenched Egyptian forces overlooking the roads to the canal. After three days of bitter and close-quarters fighting, the Israelis succeeded in dislodging the numerically superior Egyptian forces.
The Israelis lost about dead, 1, wounded, and 56 tanks. The Egyptians suffered heavier casualties, including tanks destroyed and 15 captured. The Egyptians meanwhile failed to grasp the extent and magnitude of the Israeli crossing, nor did they appreciate its intent and purpose.
This was partly due to attempts by Egyptian field commanders to obfuscate reports concerning the Israeli crossing  and partly due to a false assumption that the canal crossing was merely a diversion for a major IDF offensive targeting the right flank of the Second Army.
The Egyptians failed to scout the area and were unaware that by now, Adan's nd Armored Division was in the vicinity. Moreover, the 21st and 25th failed to coordinate their attacks, allowing General Adan's Division to meet each force individually. Adan first concentrated his attack on the 21st Armored Division, destroying 50—60 Egyptian tanks and forcing the remainder to retreat.
He then turned southward and ambushed the 25th Independent Armored Brigade, destroying 86 of its 96 tanks and all of its APCs while losing three tanks. Egyptian artillery shelled the Israeli bridge over the canal on the morning of October 17, scoring several hits. The Egyptian Air Force launched repeated raids, some with up to twenty aircraft, to take out the bridge and rafts, damaging the bridge.
The Egyptians had to shut down their SAM sites during these raids, allowing Israeli fighters to intercept the Egyptians. The Egyptians lost 16 planes and 7 helicopters, while the Israelis lost 6 planes. The bridge was damaged, and the Israeli Paratroop Headquarters, which was near the bridge, was also hit, wounding the commander and his deputy. During the night, the bridge was repaired, but only a trickle of Israeli forces crossed. According to Chaim Herzogthe Egyptians continued attacking the bridgehead until the cease-fire, using artillery and mortars to fire tens of thousands of shells into the area of the crossing.
Egyptian aircraft attempted to bomb the bridge every day, and helicopters launched suicide missions, making attempts to drop barrels of napalm on the bridge and bridgehead. The bridges were damaged multiple times, and had to be repaired at night. The attacks caused heavy casualties, and many tanks were sunk when their rafts were hit. Egyptian commandos and frogmen with armored support launched a ground attack against the bridgehead, which was repulsed with the loss of 10 tanks.
Two subsequent Egyptian counterattacks were also beaten back. After the failure of the October 17 counterattacks, the Egyptian General Staff slowly began to realize the magnitude of the Israeli offensive. Early on October 18, the Soviets showed Sadat satellite imagery of Israeli forces operating on the west bank. Alarmed, Sadat dispatched Shazly to the front to assess the situation first hand. He no longer trusted his field commanders to provide accurate reports. He advocated withdrawing most of Egypt's armor from the east bank to confront the growing Israeli threat on the west bank.
Sadat rejected this recommendation outright and even threatened Shazly with a court martial. Israeli forces were by now pouring across the canal on two bridges, including one of indigenous design, and motorized rafts. Israeli engineers under Brigadier-General Dan Even had worked under heavy Egyptian fire to set up the bridges, and over were killed and hundreds more wounded.
On the morning of October 18, Sharon's forces on the west bank launched an offensive toward Ismailiaslowly pushing back the Egyptian paratroop brigade occupying the sand rampart northward to enlarge the bridgehead. Adan's division rolled south toward Suez City while Magen's division pushed west toward Cairo and south toward Adabiya. Sharon hoped to seize the city and thereby sever the logistical and supply lines for most of the Egyptian Second Army.
Sharon's second brigade began to cross the canal. The brigade's forward elements moved to the Abu Sultan Camp, from where they moved north to take Orcha, an Egyptian logistics base defended by a commando battalion. Israeli infantrymen cleared the trenches and bunkers, often engaging in hand-to-hand combat, as tanks moved alongside them and fired into the trench sections to their front.
The position was secured before nightfall. More than Egyptians were killed and 50 taken prisoner, while the Israelis lost 18 dead. The fall of Orcha caused the collapse of the Egyptian defensive line, allowing more Israeli troops to get onto the sand rampart. There, they were able to fire in support of Israeli troops facing Missouri Ridge, an Egyptian-occupied position on the Bar-Lev Line that could pose a threat to the Israeli crossing.
On the same day, Israeli paratroopers participating in Sharon's drive pushed the Egyptians back far enough for the Israeli bridges to be out of sight of Egyptian artillery observers, though the Egyptians continued shelling the area. As the Israelis pushed towards Ismailia, the Egyptians fought a delaying battle, falling into defensive positions further north as they came under increasing pressure from the Israeli ground offensive, coupled with airstrikes.
On October 21, one of Sharon's brigades was occupying the city's outskirts, but facing fierce resistance from Egyptian paratroopers and commandos. The same day, Sharon's last remaining unit on the east bank attacked Missouri Ridge. Shmuel Gonen had demanded Sharon capture the position, and Sharon had reluctantly ordered the attack. The assault was preceded by an air attack that caused hundreds of Egyptian soldiers to flee and thousands of others to dig in.
One battalion then attacked from the south, destroying 20 tanks and overrunning infantry positions before being halted by Sagger rockets and minefields. Another battalion attacked from southwest and inflicted heavy losses on the Egyptians, but its advance was halted after eight tanks were knocked out. The surviving Israeli soldiers managed to hold off an Egyptian infantry assault while losing two killed before surrendering.
Two of the Israeli soldiers managed to hide and escaped back to Israeli lines. The Israelis managed to occupy one-third of Missouri Ridge. Defense Minister Moshe Dayan countermanded orders from Sharon's superiors to continue the attack. On October 22, Ismailia's Egyptian defenders were occupying their last line of defense, but managed to repel an Israeli attempt to get behind Ismailia and encircle the city, then push some of Sharon's forward troops back to the Sweetwater Canal.
Both sides had suffered heavy losses. On the northern front, the Israelis also attacked Port Saidfacing Egyptian troops and a strong Tunisian unit, who fought a defensive battle. Adan and Magen moved south, decisively defeating the Egyptians in a series of engagements, though they often encountered determined Egyptian resistance, and both sides suffered heavy casualties. Adan's three armored brigades fanned out, with one advancing through the Geneifa Hills, another along a parallel road south of them, and the third advancing towards Mina.
Adan's brigades met resistance from dug-in Egyptian forces in the Sweetwater Canal area's greenbelt. Adan's other brigades were also held by a line of Egyptian military camps and installations. Adan was also harassed by the Egyptian Air Force. The Israelis slowly advanced, bypassing Egyptian positions whenever possible. After being denied air support due to the presence of two SAM batteries that had been brought forward, Adan sent two brigades to attack them.
The brigades slipped past the dug-in Egyptian infantry, moving out from the greenbelt for more than eight kilometres, and fought off multiple Egyptian counterattacks. Adan also captured Fayid Airport, which was subsequently prepared by Israeli crews to serve as a supply base and to fly out wounded soldiers. Scores of Egyptian artillerymen were killed and many more taken prisoner.
Two Israeli soldiers were also killed, including the son of General Moshe Gidron. Meanwhile, Magen's division moved west and then south, covering Adan's flank and eventually moving south of Suez City to the Gulf of Suez. The United Nations Security Council passed 14—0 Resolution calling for a ceasefire, largely negotiated between the U. It called upon the belligerents to immediately cease all military activity.
Secretary of State Henry Kissinger intimated to Prime Minister Meir that he would not object to offensive action during the night before the ceasefire was to come into effect. Several minutes before the ceasefire came into effect, three Scud missiles were fired at Israeli targets by either Egyptian forces or Soviet personnel in Egypt. This was the first combat use of Scud missiles. One hit an Israeli supply convoy and killed seven soldiers.
Adan's drive south had left Israeli and Egyptian units scattered throughout the battlefield, with no clear lines between them.
As Egyptian and Israeli units tried to regroup, regular firefights broke out. During the night, Elazar reported that the Egyptians were attacking in an attempt to regain land at various locations, and that nine Israeli tanks had been destroyed. He asked permission from Dayan to respond to the attacks and Dayan agreed.
Israel then resumed its drive south. It is unclear which side fired first  but Israeli field commanders used the skirmishes as justification to resume the attacks. When Sadat protested alleged Israeli truce violations, Israel said that Egyptian troops had fired first. William B. Quandt noted that regardless of who fired the first post-ceasefire shot, it was the Israeli Army that was advancing beyond the October 22 ceasefire lines.
Adan resumed his attack on October Israeli armor and paratroopers also entered Suez in an attempt to capture the city, but they were confronted by Egyptian soldiers and hastily raised local militia forces. They were surrounded, but towards night the Israeli forces managed to extricate themselves.
The Israelis had lost 80 dead and wounded, with an unknown number of Egyptian casualties, for no tactical gain see Battle of Suez. The next morning, October 23, Days Of War flurry of diplomatic activity occurred. Soviet reconnaissance flights had confirmed that Israeli forces were moving south, and the Soviets accused the Israelis of treachery. Kissinger called Meir in an effort to persuade her to withdraw a few hundred metres and she indicated that Israel's tactical position on the ground had improved.
Kissinger found out about the Third Army's encirclement shortly thereafter. The position could be parlayed later into allowing the United States to mediate in the dispute and wean Egypt from Soviet influence. As a result, the United States exerted tremendous pressure on the Israelis to refrain from destroying the trapped army, even threatening to support a UN resolution demanding that the Israelis withdraw to their October 22 positions if they did not allow non-military supplies to reach the army.
In a phone call with Israeli ambassador Simcha DinitzKissinger told the ambassador that the destruction of the Egyptian Third Army "is an option that does not exist.
Despite being surrounded, the Third Army managed to maintain its combat integrity east of the canal and keep up its defensive positions, to the surprise of many. Dupuythe Israelis, Soviets and Americans overestimated the vulnerability of the Third Army at the time. It was not on the verge of collapse, and he wrote that while a renewed Israeli offensive would probably overcome it, this was not a certainty. Thus, we can not say that we defeated or conquered them.
David T. Buckwalter agrees that despite the isolation of the Third Army, it was unclear if the Israelis could have protected their forces on the west bank of the canal from a determined Egyptian assault and still maintain sufficient strength along the rest of the front. Kumaraswamy, who wrote that intense American pressure prevented the Israelis from annihilating the stranded Third Army. Herzog noted that given the Third Army's desperate situation, in terms of being cut off from re-supply and reassertion of Israeli air superiority, the destruction of the Third Army was inevitable and could have been achieved within a very brief period.
Once the Third Army was encircled by Israeli troops every bit of bread to be sent to our men was paid for by meeting Israeli demands. Shortly before the ceasefire came into effect, an Israeli tank battalion advanced into Adabiya, and took it with support from the Israeli Navy. Some 1, Egyptian prisoners were taken, and about a hundred Egyptian soldiers assembled just south of Adabiya, where they held out against the Israelis.
The Israelis also conducted their third and final incursion into Suez. They made some gains, but failed to break into the city center. As a result, the city was partitioned down the main street, with the Egyptians holding the city center and the Israelis controlling the outskirts, port installations and oil refinery, effectively surrounding the Egyptian defenders. On the morning of October 26, the Egyptian Third Army violated the ceasefire by attempting to break through the surrounding Israeli forces.
The attack was repulsed by Israeli air and ground forces. Though most heavy fighting ended on October 28, the fighting never stopped until January 18, Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan stated that "The cease-fire existed on paper, but the continued firing along the front was not the only characteristic of the situation between October 24, and January 18, This intermediate period also held the ever-present possibility of a renewal of full-scale war.
There were three variations on how it might break out, two Egyptian and one Israeli. One Egyptian plan was to attack Israeli units west of the canal from the direction of Cairo. The other was to cut off the Israeli canal bridgehead by a link-up of the Second and Third Armies on the east bank.
Both plans were based on massive artillery pounding of Israeli forces, who were not well fortified and who would suffer heavy casualties. It was therefore thought that Israel would withdraw from the west bank, since she was most sensitive on the subject of soldier's lives.
Egypt, at the time had a total of 1, first-line tanks on both sides of the canal front, on the east bank and 1, on the west bank. Also on the west bank, in the second line, were an additional tanks for the defense of Cairo. She had some 2, artillery pieces, about operational aircraft, and at least SAM missile batteries positioned around our forces so as to deny us air support.
The IDF acknowledged the loss of 14 soldiers during this postwar period. Egyptian losses were higher, especially in the sector controlled by General Ariel Sharonwho ordered his troops to respond with massive firepower to any Egyptian provocation.
By the end of the war, the Israelis had advanced to positions some kilometres from Egypt's capital, Cairoand occupied 1, square kilometres west of the Suez Canal. The Israelis had also taken many prisoners after Egyptian soldiers, including many officers, began surrendering in masses towards the end of the war. Despite Israel's tactical successes west of the canal, the Egyptian military was reformed and organized.
Consequently, according to Gamasythe Israeli military position became "weak" for different reasons, "One, Israel now had a large force about six or seven brigades in a very limited area of land, surrounded from all sides either by natural or man-made barriers, or by the Egyptian forces. This put it in a weak position. Moreover, there were the difficulties in supplying this force, in evacuating it, in the lengthy communication lines, and in the daily attrition in men and equipment.
Two, to protect these troops, the Israeli command had to allocate other forces four or five brigades to defend the entrances to the breach at the Deversoir. Three, to immobilize the Egyptian bridgeheads in Sinai the Israeli command had to allocate ten brigades to face the Second and Third army bridgeheads.
In addition, it became necessary to keep the strategic reserves at their maximum state of alert. Thus, Israel was obliged to keep its armed force-and consequently the country-mobilized for a long period, at least until the war came to an end, because the ceasefire did not signal the end of the war.
There is no doubt that this in total conflict with its military theories. None of the Canal's main cities were occupied by Israel; however, the city of Suez was surrounded.
Egypt wished to end the war when it realized that the IDF canal crossing offensive could result in a catastrophe. In the Golan Heightsthe Syrians attacked two Israeli armored brigades, an infantry brigade, two paratrooper battalions and eleven artillery batteries with five divisions the 7th9th and 5thwith the 1st and 3rd in reserve and batteries. At the onset of the battle, the Israeli brigades of some 3, troops, tanks and 60 artillery pieces faced off against three infantry divisions with large armor components comprising 28, Syrian troops, tanks and artillery pieces, Nights Of Love - Sentence (6) - Sentence (CDr.
In addition, the Syrians deployed two armored divisions from the second day onwards. That ought to be enough". The "Purple Line" ran along a series of low dormant volcanic cones, "tels", in the north and deep ravines in the south. It was covered by a continuous tank ditch, bunker complexes and dense minefields.
Directly west of this line a series of tank ramps were constructed: earthen platforms on which a Centurion tank could position itself with only its upper turret and gun visible, offering a substantial advantage when duelling the fully exposed enemy tanks. The Syrians began their attack at with an airstrike by about a hundred aircraft and a fifty-minute artillery barrage. The two forward infantry brigades, with an organic tank battalion, of each of the three infantry divisions then crossed the cease-fire lines, bypassing United Nations observer posts.
They were covered by mobile anti-aircraft batteries, and equipped with bulldozers to fill-in anti-tank ditches, bridge-layer tanks to overcome obstacles and mine-clearance vehicles. These engineering vehicles were priority targets for Israeli tank gunners and took heavy losses, but Syrian infantry at points demolished the tank ditch, allowing their armor to cross. Attwo hundred men from the Syrian 82nd Paratrooper Battalion descended on foot from Mount Hermon and around took the Israeli observation base on the southern slope, with its advanced surveillance equipment.
A small force dropped by four helicopters simultaneously placed itself on the access road south of the base. Made to believe that Israel had fallen, they disclosed much sensitive information.
During the afternoon 7th Armored Brigade was still kept in reserve and the th Armored Brigade held the frontline with only two tank battalions, the 74th in the north and the 53rd in the south. Northern Command was in the process of moving their headquarters to Safed in Galilee and the senior staff officers were absent at this moment, having expected the Syrian attack to start at Operations officer Lieutenant-Colonel Uri Simhoni therefore improvised an allocation of the tactical reserves, thereby largely deciding the course of the battle.
Two companies of the 75th Mechanised Infantry Battalion, arrived in the morning, of the same brigade were sent to the southern sector. Also 82nd TB had to reinforce the south. However, Ben-Gal had split off a company of this battalion to serve as a reserve for his own brigade. AtYitzhak Hofihead Northern Command, shortly visited Nafah and split command of the Golan front: the north would be the responsibility of 7th AB, to which 53rd TB would be transferred.
Command of th AB would be limited to the south, taking over 82nd TB. For this purpose each of the three infantry divisions, also committing their organic mechanised brigade with forty tanks, had been reinforced by an armored brigade of about ninety tanks. Two of these brigades were to attack the Days Of War sector, four the southern sector.
Over four days of fighting, the 7th Armored Brigade in the north under Avigdor Ben-Gal managed to hold the rocky hill line defending the northern flank of their headquarters in Nafah, inflicting heavy losses on the Syrians. Syrian High Command, understanding that forcing the Quneitra Gap would ensure a total victory on the Golan, decided to commit its strategic armored reserves.
Having practiced on the Golan Heights numerous times, Israeli gunners made effective use of mobile artillery. The close distances during night engagements, negated the usual Israeli superiority in long-range duels. Israeli command had directed all reserves to the threatened southern sector, trusting that the northern sector was secure.
Taking losses and hit by an intense artillery barrage, the Israeli Centurions withdrew from their tank ramps. The situation was restored by an ad hoc force of thirteen tanks formed by Lt. Yossi Ben-Hanan from repaired vehicles and stray crews. The Syrians abandoned their last breakthrough attempt, having lost since 6 October some tanks in the Quneitra Gap. In the southern sector, the Israeli Barak Armored Brigade had to defend a much flatter terrain. Beside these objective draw-backs, it suffered from ineffective command.
Ben-Shoham initially still had his headquarters in Nafah, far from his sector.
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