On the mountains of south- western Texas there are frequently heard crackling noises as the rocks of that arid region throw off scales from a fraction of an inch to four inches in thickness, and loud reports are made as huge bowlders split apart.
Beds half a foot thick, forming Frigid Digits - Street Eaters - Rusty Eyes And Hydrocarbons (CD) floor of lime- stone quarries in Wisconsin, have been known to buckle and arch and break to fragments under the heat of the summer sun. By this term is meant tlie freezing and thawing of water contained in the pores and crevices of rocks. All rocks are more or less porous and all contain more or less water in their pores. Workers in stone call tliis "quarry water," and speak of a stone as " green " before the quarry water has dried out.
Water also seeps along joints and bedding planes and gathers in all seams and crevices. Water expands in freezing, ten cubic inches of water freezing to about eleven cubic inches of ice.
As water freezes in the rifts and pores of rocks it expands with the irresistible force illustrated in tlie freezing and breaking of water pipes in winter. The first rift in the rock, perhaps too narrow to be seen, is widened little by little by the wedges of successive frosts, and finally the rock is broken into detached blocks, and these into angular chip-stone by the same process. It is on mountain tops and in high latitudes that the effects of frost are most plainly seen.
In Iceland, in Spitzbergen, in Kamchathi,' ' n otiier frigid Inads large areas an- tliiclcly strewn with sharp-edged fragmenta into wliich the rock has been shattered by frost. Organic agents. Wb must reckon the ruots of plants and rees aiuung tlie agents wliicli break rocks into pieces.
Moreover, the acids of the root coiv rode the rocks with which they are in contact. One may 3imietimes find in the soil a hloek ot limestone wrapped in a mesh of roots, ire it has eaten into I little furrow whi each of which lies in the stone. Rootless plants called lichem often cover and corrode roclcB as yet bare of soil ; but where lichens are destroying the roek less rapidly than does the weather, they seive in a way as a protection.
Conditions favoring disintegration and decay. On the contrary, the decay of rocks under the chemical action of water is favored by a warm, mtnst climate and abundant vegetation. Frost and heat and ctdd oaa only act within the few feet from the surface to which the necessary temperature changes are limited, while water pene- trates and alters the rocks to great depths.
Why it is a good rule of stone masons never to lay stones on edge, but always on their natural bedding planes. Why quarrymen in the northern states often keep their quarry floors flooded during winter. Why laminated limestone should not be used for curbstone. Why rocks composed of layers differing in fineness of grain and in ratios of expansion do not make good building stone.
Fine-grained rocks with pores so small that capillary attraction keeps the water which they contain from readily draining away are more apt to hold their por6s ten elevenths full of water than are rocks whose pores are larger.
Which, therefore, are more likely to be injured by frost? Which is subject to greater temperature changes, a dark rock or one of a light color? The Mantle of Rock Waste We have seen that rocks are everywhere slowly wasting away. They are broken in pieces by frost, by tree roots, and by heat and cold. They dissolve and decompose under the chemical action of water and the various corrosive substances which it contains, leaving their insoluble residues as residual clays and sands upon the surface.
As a result there is everywhere form- ing a mantle of rock waste which covers the land. It is well to imagine how the country would appear were this mantle with its soil and vegetation all scraped away or had it never been formed.
The surface of the land would then be everywhere of bare rock as unbroken as a quarry floor. The thickness of the mantle. Where waste is carried away more slowly than it ls produced, it accumulates in time to great depth. The granite of Pikes Peak is disintegrated to a depth of twenty feei In the city of Wasliington granite rock is so softened to a depth of eighty feet that it can be removed with pick and shovel.
At least how thick, then, was that portion of the limestone which has rotted down to the clay? Distinguishing characteristics of residual waste.
Resid- ual wastci is unst ratified. It contains no substances which have not been derived from the weathering of the parent rock. Over much of the northern states there is spread an unstratified stony clay called the drift. It often rests on sound rocks. Hence the drift cannot have been formed by the decay of the rock of the region.
A shale or limestone, for example, cannot waste to a clay containing granite peb- bles. The origin of the drift will be explained in subsequent chapters. The differences in rocks are due more to their soluble than to their insoluble constituents.
The latter are few in number and are much the same in rocks of widely different nature, beiag chiefly quartz, silicate of alumina, and iron oxide. By the removal of their soluble parts very many and widely different rocks rot down to a residual clay gritty with particles of quartz and colored red or yellow with iron oxide.
In a broad way the changes which rocks undergo in weather- ing are an adaptation to the environment in which they find themselves at the earth's surface, — an environment different from that in which they were formed under sea or under ground.
In open air, where they are attacked by various destructive agents, few of the rock-making minerals are stable compounds except quartz, the iron oxides, and the silicate of alumina ; and so it is to one or more of these comparatively uisoluble sub- stances that most rocks are reduced by long decay. Which produces a mantle of finer waste, frost or chemical decay? In what respects would you expect that the mantle of waste would differ in warm luiinid lands like India, in frozen countries like Alaska, and in deserts such as the Sahara?
The soil. The same agencies which produce the mantle of waste are continually at work upon it, breaking it up into finer and finer particles and causing its more complete decay. Thus on the surface, where the waste has weathered longest, it is gradually made fine enough to support the growth of plants, and is then known as soU.
Tlie coarser waste beneath is some- times spoken of as subsoil. Soil usually contains more or less dark, carbonaceous, decayiQg organic matter, called humus, and is then often termed the humus layer. Until rocks are reduced to residual clavs the work of the weather is more rapid and effective on the fragments of the mantle of waste than on the rocks from which waste is being formed.
Anv fresh excavation of cellar or cistern, or cut for road or railway, will show the characteristics of the humus layer. In some way the decaying vegetable matter continually forming on the surface has become mingled with the material Ijeneath it. How humus and the subsoil are mingled. The mingling of humus and the subsoil is brought about by several means. The roots of plants ]: enetrate the waste, and when they die leave their decaying substance to fertilize it.
Leaves and stems falling on the surface are turned under bv several agents. Earthworms and other animals wlujse home is in the waste drag them into their burrows eitlier f n' f jod or to line their nests. Trees overthrown by the wind, roots and all, turn over the soil and subsoil and mingle them together. Bacteria also work in the waste and contribute to its enricliment.
The animals living in the mantle do much in other ways toward the making of soil. They bring the coarser fragments from beneath to the surface, where the waste weathers more rapidly. Their burrows allow air and water to penetrate tlie waste more freely and to affect it to greater depths.
In the tropics the mantle of waste is worked over chiefly by ants. They excavate underground galleries and chambers, extending sometimes as much as fourteen feet below the surface, and build mounds which may reach as high above it.
In some parts of Paraguay and southern Brazil these mounds, like gigantic potato hills, cover tracts of considerable area. On the plateaus of central Africa explorers have walked for miles through forests every tree of which was plastered with these galleries of mud. Each grain of earth used in their construction is moistened and cemented by slime as it is laid in place by the ant, and is Frigid Digits - Street Eaters - Rusty Eyes And Hydrocarbons (CD) acted on by organic chem- ical agents.
Sooner or later these galleries are beaten down by heavy rains, and their fertilizing substances are scattered widely by the winds.
In temperate regions the waste is worked over largely by earthworms. In making their burrows worms swallow earth in order to extract from it any nutritive organic matter which it may contain. They treat it with their digestive acids, grind it in their stony gizzards, and void it in castings on the surface of the ground.
It was estimated by Darwin that in many parts of England each year, on every acre, more than ten tons of earth pass through the bodies of earthworms and are brought to the surface, and that every few years the entire soil layer is thus worked over by them. In all these ways the waste is made fine and stirred and enriched. Grain by grain the subsoil with its fresh mineral ingredients is brought to the surface, and the rich organic matter which plants and animals have taken from the atmos- phere is plowed under.
Thus Nature plows and harrows on "the great world's farm" to make ready and ever to renew a soil fit for the endless succession of her crops. The world processes by which rocks are contiaually wasting away are thus indispensable to the life of plants and animals.
The organic world is built on the ruins of the inorganic, and because the soUd rocks have been broken down into soil men are able to live upon the earth.
Solar energy. The source of the energy which accomplishes all this necessary work is the sun. It is the radiant energy of the sun which causes the disiutegration of rocks, which lifts- vapor mto the atmosphere to fall as rain, which gives life to plants and animals.
Under the action of solar energy these enveh pes are in constant motion. Water from the hydrosphere is continually rising in vapor into the atmosphere, the air of the atmosphei-e penetrates the Frigid Digits - Street Eaters - Rusty Eyes And Hydrocarbons (CD) sphere, — for its gases are dissolved in all waters, — and both air and water enter and work upon the solid earth- By their action upon the lithosphere they have produced a third envelope, — the mantle of rock waste.
This envelope also is in movement, not indeed as a whole, but particle by particle. Tlic causes which set its particles in motion, and the dill e rent forms which the mantle comes to assume, we will now j r ceed to study. Movements of the Mantle of Eock Waste At the sandstone ledges which we first visited we saw not only that the rocks were crumbling away, but also that grains and fragments of them were creeping down the slopes of the valley to the stream and were carried by it onward toward the sea This process is going on everywhere.
Slowly it may be, and with many interruptions, but surely, the wiiste of the land moves downward to tlie sea. We mav divide its course into two parts, — the patli to the stream, whicli we will now consider, and its carriage onward by the stream, which we will defer to a later chapter.
The cliief agent concerned in the movement of waste is gravity. Each particle of waste feels the unceasing downward pull of the eartli's mass and follows it when free to do so. All agencies wliicli produce waste tend to set its particles free and in motion, and therefore coo] erate with gravity. On cliffs, rocks fall when wedged off by frost or by roots of trees, and when detached by any other agency. Animals and plants stir the waste, heat expands it, cold contracts it, the strokes of the raindrops drive loose particles down the slope and the wind lifts and lets them fall.
Of all these movements, gravity assists those which are downhill and retards those which are uphill. On the whole, therefore, the downhill movements prevail, and the mantle of waste, block by block and grain by grain, creeps along the downhill path.
Explain why it did so. The most efficient agent in the carriage of waste to the streams is the rain. It moves particles of soil by the force of the blows of the falling drops, and washes them down all slopes to within reach of permanent streams. On surfaces unpro- tected by vegetation, as on plowed fields and in arid regions, the rain wears furrows and gullies both in the mantle of waste and in exposures of unaltered rock Fig. At the foot of a hill we may find that the soil has accumulated by creep and wash to the depth of several feet ; while where the liillside is steepest the soil may be exceedingly thin, or quite absent, because removed about as fast as fowned.
Against the walls of an abbey built on a slope in Wales seven hundred years ago, the creeping waste has gathered on the uphill side to a depth of seven feet. The slow-flowing sheet of waste is often dammed by fences and walls, whose uphill side gathers waste in a few years so as to show a distinctly higher surface than the downhill side, especially in plowed fields where the movement is least checked by vegetation.
At the foot of cliffs there is usually to be found a slope of rock fragments which clearly have fallen from above Fig. Such a heap of waste is known as talus. The amount of talus in any place depends both on the rate of its formation and the rate of its removal. Talus is removed slowly where it decays slowly, either because of the climate or the resistance of the rock. It may be rapidly removed by a stream flowing along its base. In a moist climate a soluble rock, such as massive limestone, may form talus little if any faster than the talus weathers away.
Cliffs of such slow-decaying rocks as quartzite and granite when closely jointed accumulate talus in large amounts. Talus slopes may be so steep as to reach the angle of repose, Le. This angle varies with different materials, being greater with coarse and angular fragments than with fine rounded grains.
As the talus is removed and weathers away its slope retreats together with the retreat of the cliff, as seen in Figure 9. Graded slopes.
Where rocks weather Fig. On the steeper slopes it is coarser and in more rapid movement than on slopes more gentle, but mountain sides and hills And plains alike come to Ije mantled with sheets of waste which everywhere is creeping toward the streams.
Such un- ] roken slopes, worn or built to the least inclination at wliich the waste supplied by weatheiing can be urged onward, are known as graded slopes.
On steep mountain Hides the accumulated snows of wiiilcr ofu-ii ylip and slide in avalmiL'hes to the valleys below. Another common and abrupt uiethod of deliver- ing waste to streams is by slips of the waste mantle in large masses. The waste slips on the rock sur- face thus lubricated and plunges down the mountain side in a swift roaring torrent of mud and stones. We may conveniently mention here a second type of land- slide, where masses of solid rock as well as the mantle of waste are involved in the sudden movement.
Such slips occur when valleys have been rapidly deepened by streams or glaciers and their sides have not yet been graded. Landslide 11or are broken by joint planes im, limestone dipping toward dipping in the same direction. A, shale upper layers, including perhaps the entire mountain side, have been cut across by the valley trench and are left supported only on the inclined surface of the underlying rocks.
Water may percolate undergroimd along this surface and loosen the cohesion between the upper and the underlying strata by converting the upper surface of a shale to soft wet clay, by dissolving layers of a limestone, or by removing the cement of a sandstone and converting it into loose sand.
Wlien the inclined surface is thus lubricated the overlying masses may be launched into the valley oelow. The solid rocks are broken and crushed in slid- ing and converted into waste consisting, like that of talus, of angular unsorted fragments, blocks of all sizes being min- gled pellmell with rock meal and dust. The principal effects of landslides may be gathered from the following examples. At Grohna, India, inthe face of a spur four thousand feet high, of the lower ranges of the Himalayas, slipped into the gorge of the headwaters of the Ganges River in successive rock falls which lasted for three days.
Blocks of stone were projected for a mile, and clouds of Umestone dust were spread over the surrounding country. A lake gathered behind tliis barrier, gradually rising uiitil it verlJjpped it in a little leas than a yetir.
In ISOG, after forty days of incessant rain, a cHfT of sandstone slipped into the YaDgtse River in China, reducing the width of the channel lo eighty yarda and causing formidable rapids. Bowlders i Quarry, Cape. The rock is divided and vertical joint i ders of the apper ledge differ thoM tienealb, and why 7 blocks by harizoiital B.
ISy In lofty mountain ranges thei"o may not be a single valley witllDUt its traces of landslides, bo common there is this method of the movemuit of waste, and of building to grade over-attepened wlopes. Rock Sculpture by Weathering We are now to consider a few of the forms into which rock masses are can'ed by the weather. Bowlders of weathering. Sucli I'ounded cores, known as. Differential weathering. This term covers all cases in which a rock maaa weathers diffei-ently in differ- ent portions.
Any weaker spots or layers are etched out on the surface, in relief. Honey com bed Li:u.! Mtuiit, luwa weather drills out the weaker portions. TMlfereutial weathering plays a large part in the sculpture tif the land. Hut in such instances the lowering of the surface of the weaker ruck is also due to the wear of streams, and especially to the removal by them fi-om the land of the waste which covers and protects the rocks beneath, Rocka owe their weakneaa to several different oauses.
Some, Huoh as beds of loose tiand, are soft and easily worn by rains ; some, as lime- stone and gypBHin for example, are soluble. Even hard insoluble rocka are weak under the attack of the weather when they are closely divided by joints and bedding planes and are thus readily broken up into blocks by mechanical agencies. Outliers and monuments.
Such remnant masses, if large, are known as outUers. Monuments are smaller masBca and may be but partially i detached from the cliff face. The rock castle falls intii ruin, leaving hcva anil theru an isolated tower ; the U iwer crumbles to a lonely pillar, soun to be overthrown.
Thn pillare may have a capital formri i of a resistant stratum. Monu- ments may be imdei-cut and Kn. Stony clays disiiitegratiiig under the rain often contain bowldera which protect the wiifter material beneath from the vertical blows of raindrops, and thiia come tu stand on pedestals of some height Fig.
One may sometimes see on the ground beneath dripping eaves pebbles left in tbe aan:e way. Hountain peaks and ridges. Frcffit and heat aud cold sculpture high mountains to sharp, tusklike poaks and ragged, serrate crests, wlieie tlieir waste is readily removed Fig.
Mountain climbera wlio have cMnped It its baas tell how inige rocka itffh tiiie to time come leaping down itw precipices, followed by trains of dislodged, smaller fragments and rock dust; and how at night one may trace the conrse of tlie bowlders by the sparks which tliey strike from the mountain walla. Mount Awini- boine, Canada Fig. How was it produced? Why quadrangular? Chemical decay, especially and vegetation, favors the productio mountains.
The weather curve. We have seen that weathering reduces the angular block quarried by the frost to it rounded bowlder by chipping off its corners and smoothing away its edges. Tlie weather curve, ft'liidi may be seen on the sunuiuta of low bills Fig. IIow much faster will a and b weather than c, and what will be the effect on the shape of the block?
For the sake of clearness it is iiecessaiy to deacribe the work of each geological agent separately. We must not forget, however, that in Nature no agent works independently and alone; that every result is the outcome of a long chniu of causes. The sculpture of the locks is accomplished only by the cooperation of luiuiy forces. The constant removal of wa. If waste were not i-emoved, it would grow to be so thickas to protect the rock hcneatli from further weathering, and the processes of destruction which wo have studied would lie brought to an end.
The very presence of the mantle of waste over the land provcK that on the whole rocks weather more rapidly than their wiiMfce is i-emoved. The destruction of the land is going on as fast an the waste can be carried away.
Similar records we shall find buried deeply among the rocks of the crust in old soils and in rocks pitted and decayed, telling of old land surfaces long wasted by the weather. Ever since the dry land appeared these agencies have been as now quietly and unceasingly at work upon it, and have ever been the chief means of the destruction Fiii.
Mnuiit Sneffels, Colorado Dnuribe and account for what ytiii see in Cliis view. What changes ma; the mountain be expected to uDdergo in tbe fature Irom the agencies now at work upon It 7 of its rocks.
The vast hulk of the stratified rocks of the earth's crust is made np almost wholly of the waste thus worn from ancient lands. In studying the various geological agencies we must remem- ber the almost inconceivable times m which they work. The slowest process when multiplied by the immense time in which it ifi carried on pnxluces great results.
The geologist looks upon the land forms of the earth's surface as monuments which record the slow action of weathering and other agents during the ages of the past. We should accustom ourselves also to think of the results which weather- ing will sooner or later bring to pass.
The tombstone and the bowlder of tlie tield, which each year lose from their surfaces a few crystalline grains, must in time be wholly destroyed.
Even the mountains are crumbling away continually, and therefore are but fleeting features of the landscape. We have seen how large is the part that water plays at and near the surface of the land in the processes of weathering and in the slow movement of waste down all slopes to the stream ways. We now take up the work of water as it descends beneath the ground, — a corrosive agent still, and carrying in solution as its load the invisible waste of rocks derived from.
Land waters have their immediate, source in the rainfall. By the heat of the sun water is evaporated from tlie reservoir of the ocean and from moist surfaces everywhere. Mingled as vapor with the air, it is carried by the winds over sea and land, and condensed it returns to the earth as rain or snow.
That part of the rainfall which descends on the ocean does not con- cern us, but that which falls on the land accomplishes, as it returns to the sea, the most important work of all surface geological agencies. The rainfall may be divided into three parts : the first dries up, being discharged into the air by evaporation either directly from the soil or through vegetation ; the second runs off over the surface to flood the streams ; the tliird soaks in the ground and is henceforth known as ground or underground water.
The descent of ground water. Seeping througli the mantle of waste, ground water soaks into the pores and crevices of the underlying rock. All rocks of the upper crust of the earth are more or less porous, and all drink in water. Pervious rockSy on the other hand, such as many sandstones, have pore spaces so large that water filters through them more or less freely. Besides its seepage through the pores of pervious rocks, water passes to lower levels through the joints and cracks by which all rocks near the surface are broken.
Even the closest-grained granite has a pore space of 1 inwhile sandstone may have a pore space of 1 in 4. Sand is so porous that it may absorb a third of its volumo of water, and a loose loam even as much as one half. The ground-water surface is the name given the upper surface of ground water, the level below which all rocks are saturated. In dry seasons the ground-water surface sinks.
For groimd water is constantly seeping downward imder gravity, it is evaporated in the Fig. Diagram illustrating the Relation of the waste and its mois- G round- Water Surface to the Surface of the. In wet seasons these constant losses are more than made good by fresh supplies from that part of the rainfall which soaks into the ground, and the ground- water surface rises. In moist climates the ground-water surface Fig. In dry climates permanent ground water may be found only at depths of hundreds of feet.
Ground water is held at its height by the fact that its circula- tion is constantly impeded by capillarity and friction. Wells and springs. Excavations made iii permeahle rocks helow the gi'ound-water surface till to its level and are known as wells. WTiere valleys cut tliis surface permanent streams are formed, the water either oozuig t'oith alonjf iU-detined areas or issuing at definite points called s[iiiiijfw, whci'ti it is concentrated hy tho structure of the rocks.
A level tract where the ground-watei' surface coiucides with the surface of thi' ground is a swamp ni marsh. By studying a spriiii; oue may learn much uf the ways and work of ground water. Spring water differs from that of the stream into which it flows iii several respects. If we test tlic spring with a ther- mometer during succes- sive months, we shall find that its temperature remains much the same the year round. In summer it is markedly cooler than the stream ; in winter it is warmer and remains unfrozen wliile the latter perhaps ia locked m ice.
This means that its under- tipmnd path must lie at such a distance from the surface that it is httle affected by summer's heat and winter's cold. Wliile the stream is often turbid with surface waste washed into it by rams, the spring remains clear; its water has been filtered during its alow movement through many small under- ground passages and the pores of rocks. Chemical analysis proves that streams contam various minerals in solution, but these are usually in quantities so small that they are not perceptible to the taste or feeL But the water of springs is often well charged with soluble minerals ; in its slow, long journey underground it has searched out the sol- uble parts of the rocks through wliich it seeps and has dissolved as much of them as it could.
Wlien spring water is boiled away, the invisible load which it has carried is left behind, and in composition is found to be practically identical with that of the soluble ingredients of the country rock.
Although to some extent the soluble waste of rocks is washed down surface slopes by the rain, by far the larger part is carried downward by ground water and is delivered to streams by springs. In limestone regions springs are charged with calcium carbonate the carbonate of limeand where the limestone is magnesian they contain magnesium carbonate also.
When springs rise from rocks containing gypsum they are hard with calcium sulphate. In granite regions they contain more or less soda and potash from the decay of feldspar. The flow of springs varies much less during the different seasons of the year tlian does that of surface streams. So slow is the movement of ground water through the rocks that even during long droughts large amounts remain stored above the levels of surface drainage.
Movements of ground water. Ground water is in constant movement toward its outlets. Its rate varies according to many conditions, but always is extremely slow. Even through loose sands beneath the beds of rivers it sometimes does not exceed a fifth of a mile a year. In any region two zones of flow may be distinguished.
The deep zones of flow occupy any pervi- ous rocks which may be found be- low the impervious layer which lies nearest to the sur- face. The upper zone is a vast sheet of water saturating the soil and rocks and slowly seeping downward through their pores and interstices along the slopes to the valleys, where in part it discharges in springs and often unites also in a wide underflowing stream which supports and feeds the river Fig.
The strata dip toward the south, S. Diagram of Well which goes dry in Drought, a, and of Unfailing Well, b Redraw the diagram, showing by dotted line the normal ground-water surface and by broken line the ground-water surface at times of drought Fig.
Diagram of Wet Weather Stream, a, and of Permanent Stream, h Redraw the diagram, showing ground-water surface by dotted line A city in a region of copious rains, built on the narrow flood plain of a river, overlooked by hills, depends for its water supply on driven wells, within the city limits, sunk in the sand a few yards from the edge of the stream.
Does it vary with the season? Have you ever known wells to go dry? It may be possible to get data from different wells and to draw a diagram showing the ground-water surface as compared with the sur- face of the ground.
Fissure springs and artesian wells. The deeper zones of flow lie in pervious strata which are overlain by some impervious stratum. Such layers are often carried by their dip to great depths, and water may circulate in them to far below the level of the surface streams and even of the sea.
Section across South Dakota from the Black Hills to Sioux Falls SilliLstrating the Conditions of Artesian Wells a, crystalline impervious rocks; 6, sedimentary rocks, shales, limestones, and sandstones; c, pervious sandstone, the aquifer; d, impervious shales; lo, w, w, artesian wells upward by the pressure of the weight of the water contained in the higher parts of tlie stratum, and may reach the surface as a fissure spring.
A boring which taps such an aquifer is known Frigid Digits - Street Eaters - Rusty Eyes And Hydrocarbons (CD) an artesian well, a name derived from a province in France where wells of this kind have been long in use. The rise of the water in artesian wells, and in fissure springs also, depends on the following conditions illustrated in Figure The aquifer dips toward the region of the wells from higher ground, where it outcrops and receives its water.
It is inclosed between an impervious layer above and water-tight or water-logged layers beneath. The weight of the column of water thus inclosed in the aquifer causes water to rise in the well, precisely as the weight of the water in a standpipe forces it in connected pipes to the upper stories of buildings. Wliicli of the two aquifers, their tbtcknesB being equal, will have the larger outcrop and therefore be able to draw upon the larger smount of water from the rainfall?
Illustrate with diagrams. The zone of solution. The work of ground witer m produemg landslides has already been noticed- The zone in which the work of ground water is thus for the most part destructive we may call the zone of solution. Caves In missive limestone rocks ground water dissolves channels which sometimes form large caves Fig The necessary conditions for the excavation of caves of great size are well shown in central Kentucky, where an upland is built throughout of thick horizontal beds of limestone.
The absence of layers of insoluble or impervious rock in its structure allows a free circulation of ground water within it by the way of all natural openings in the rock, Tliese water ways have been gradu- ally enlarged by solution and wear uutU the upland is honey- combed with caves. Five hundred open caverns are known in one county.
One passage four miles loQg lias an average width of about ainty feet and an average height of forty feet. Galleries at different levels are connected by well-like pits, some of which measure two hundred and twenty-five feet from top to bottom. Through some of the lowest of tliese tunnels flows Echo River, still at work dissolving and wearing away the rock while on its dark way to appear at the Biirfftco an a great spring.
Natural bridges. In limestone regions channels under ground may become so well developed that the water of rains rapidly draius away through them.
Little tir iin surface water is left to form brooks. Between their vrIIpjh surfai ground by means of sink holes. Central Florida is a limestone region with its drainage largely sub- terranean and in part below the level even of the sea.
Great epringB mark the point of issue of anderground streams, while scime rise froni beneath the sea. Silver Spring, one of the largest, discliarges from a baain eight hundred feet wide and thirty feet deep a little river navi- gable for small steamers to its source. About the spring there are no surface streams for sixty miles. The Earat. Along the eastern coast of the Adriatic, lis fur south as Montenegro, lies a belt of limestoue muuutaiNs siiigulaily worn and honeycombed by the aol- Where forests have been cut from the mountain sides and the red soil has washed away, the surface of the white limestone forms a pathless desert of I'oek where each square rod has been corroded into an iutricate branch work of shallow furrows and sharp ridges.
Great sink holes, some of them sis hundred feet deep ami more, pock- mark the surface of the land. The drainage is chiefly subterranean.
Sur- face streams are rare ainl a portion of their couisi-s is often under ground. Fragmentary valleys come suddenly to an end at wails of rook where the rivers which occupy tlie valleys plunge into dark tunnels to reappear some miles away. GrDund water stands so far below the surface that it cannot be reached by wells, and the inhabi- tants depend on rain water stored for household uses.
The finest cavern of Europe, the Adelaberg Grotto, is in thia region, Karsl, the Dame of a part of this country, is now used to designate any region or landscape thus sculptured by the chemical action of surface and groond ynier. The hill honey- combed by Luray Cavern, Virginia, has been attributed to tliia cause. Cavem deposits. As it trickles from the roof uf L'averns, the liuie c-arlionatK which it hafl tnken into.
Aa the drops splash on the floor there are built up in the same vray thicker masse,s called stalagmites, which may grow to join the stalactites alx ve, forming pUlara. A stalagmitic crust often seals with rock the earth which accumulates in caverns, together with whatever relics of cave dwellers, either animals or men, it may contain. With increasing depth subterranean water becomes more and more sluggish in its movements and more and more highly charged with minerals dissolved from the rocks above.
At such depths it deposits these minerals in the pores of rocks, cementing their grains together, and in crevices and fissures, forming mineral veins. Thus below the zone of solution where the work of water is to dissolve, lies the zone of cementation where its work is chemical deposit. A part of the invisible load of waste is thus transferred from rocks near the surface to those at greater depths.
As the land surface is gradually lowered by weathering and the work of rain and streams, rocks which have lain deep within the zone of cementation are brought within the zone of solution. Thus there are exposed to view limestones, whose cracks were filled with calcite crystallized carbonate of limewith quartz or other minerals, and sandstones whose grains were well cemented many feet below the surface. Cavity filling. Small cavities in the rocks are often found more or less completely filled with minerals deposited from solution by water in its constant circulation underground.
The process may be illustrated by the deposit of salt crystals in a cup of evaporating brine, but in the latter instance the solution is not renewed as in the case of cavities in the rocks. Zell touches them fondly. Her eyes become weary. The mud there's too deep for a day trip from shore. So her slippers crawl left at the crosswalk next door. Strapless stilettos stride off that curb. Hand woven giveh worn out by a Kurd. He ignores me. Ubeyou and Alfeem pull chunks of rust red sedimentary rock down from both walls of the chasma.
There is a natural foundation on the floor of Melas, They stack the boulders precisely, like experienced dam builders, completing the project before dusk. Meanwhile, on the Inner Hemisphere, students chart their findings about the ecological effects of the Byonic Dam to the surrounding wilderness.
But the Naso king halts their research before the total EPT percentage is calculated. EPT are insect invertebrates that can gauge toxicity, spending most of their life in water. Eco Safe Power. Moon Stalker. After you finish your flight history assignment," I reply.
Asaph, a moon stalker, discovers Phobos, he names crater Stickney, after his wife. Galactic Independence. I feel the weight of the Bioverse on my eyelids. In my cornea I can feel bursts of star forming dust and debris that originate from the slit in NGCa ringed galaxy 33 million lightyears away.
Why this sadness? After some hesitation, I agree and begin. One chunky skunk runs a bicycle store. He passes a roost of hens who cluck.
To the bike store I stride. I ask Mr Skunk. Besides, they really don't want. Indeed, what a clever endeavor, methinks. Next day his door swings open wide. It's a stealthy lynx who strides inside. Has he gone for a ride? The mink sneaks out. He takes a short hike.
Bike gear for the rai n. Miss Lynx gives Mr Skunk a hug. He winks at her. H e shrugs to the kids. They pack the pump but chew their tubes. Ozone Gorge. This cascade drops degrees from the rim into the pool. There are, however, incredible formations etched onto that rust red wall, like the treads of eBike tires. If you listen closely you can hear its echo.
We depart the gorge and spin toward the next meridian. Ubeyou, in the lead, reminds us that there is no longer stratospheric ozone protecting the Outer Hemisphere, dissipating billions of years ago. As the surface cooled, it lost its magnetic field whereby solar wind could strip away the the ozone that remained.
Suddenly Ubeyou brakes. Bokka's front fender scrapes into Ubeyou's rear. The way is blocked by a midden with a large banner across the entry:. The Mantis shrimp can perceive a wide range of light wavelengths, more than any other creature in the Silky Way. With acute eyesight. But the shrimmmp punctures an eBike tire, delaying arrival to the co mmmoving horizon.
Jopiter rises. Its dark icy moon rumbles, a song that shocks the Silky Way. And wakes my eBike family camped at Tharsis. The resonance is able to brew matter in a single bound, which interferes with the BAO. BAO, Baryon acoustic oscillation, is a measurement that keeps cosmologists calculating the distance that acoustic waves of primordial plasma traveled before the plasma cooled to become neutral atoms.
This length is approximately million light years in today's Bioverse. Jopiter shines solemnly on his restless face this midnigh. I begin, "Three little quarks, two facing up and one facing down, wriggle on a proton mattress.
Their pillow, stuffed with gluons, keeps the quarks comfortably together for billions of years. He continues sleep talking. A mattress proton or neutronwith three quarhks and their bed mates, are the baryonic matterh. And the mattresses containing two quarhks are leptons or some other parhticle. After an explosive smash, the parthicles reorganize to become bosons or they decay, like an old pumpkin, to become young neutrinos and associates muons, antimatterh, undetectable energy.
Now, Mama Marhzee, please tell me a real bedtime story. One sleepy lynx leaps into bed. She puffs the pillow under her head. That sleepy boar grunts in the bed. He puffs the pillow under his head. That sleepy black bear growls to the bed. You pull your yellow blanket over the bed. The pillow is puffy under your head.
He pours the drinks. That sleepy goat sips milk with you in bed. He eats the pillow under your head. Twice more he winks. There is a secret lake beneath the Namid Desert, not unlike the subsurface waters hidden from me and my eBike family as we spin across the Outer Hemisphere.
The algorithm that stitches together the image of the cosmos, think about whether or not it has mass. We cross rust red ridges of Valles Marineris from point A to point B. Points have no dimension, geometrically speaking, yet Preons, point particles within Quarks, are more forceful than a bushel of secrets, massless or not. Chromatophores, the pigment cells controlled by muscles, can change an octobody from berry pink to chocolate polka dots during a restful nap. Not parallel to my course toward Jezero Crater, this crossbreeze takes me spinning to Crossbreeze, the place where Gramma stays.
I meetup with my actual family there, leaving my virtual crew waiting for me at the crater. We visit with Gramma then head to the Peninsula's littoral zone. Daqlen practices his zero gravity training as he presses against incoming surf after the explosion in his training pants. Sister Kwelly samples the salty seashells. Camlin and Herin take a romantic moment on a bare branch at Driftwood Beach.
The electromagnetic breeze crosses over our skin. This quasiparticle is accompanied by photons which bring watts per square meter of energy to the Inner Hemisphere. That radiation also must pay the Frumpers. Here in the Chasma sector my crew encourages free radiation exchange to charge eBike batteries, as solar particles find Frigid Digits - Street Eaters - Rusty Eyes And Hydrocarbons (CD) way to the Outer Hemisphere.
Brittle Deformation. This stratified rust red terrain looks as if it was pulled apart. Alfeem finds some chasmatic rocks that fit together.
The rock pieces resemble axles, bolts and racks. He could just as well be assembling an eBike. The ground leaps up at us, Palikir Crater quivering, our eBikes rattling. Upon analyzing the meteorite we find an unusual granule, stardust from a nova that imploded five billion years ago. Overwhelming response. Now, fourteen billion years later on the slope of Mount Sharpmy eBike crew aims our cosmoscope towards an ultra infrared glow interlaced in the planetary nebula NGC three thousand lightyears away.
I look into the lens. One of them bounces into a toothwort mustard leaf unfurling near stonecrops. This mishap takes that insect careening up the trail at one nanometer per atto second. After tunneling through the trunk of a budding buckeye tree, our hemipteran friend crosses the entire crest. Where next? The hemipteran drops onto the sand at Pawley Island, momentarily. The solar wind carries our insect friend from that beach toward the Outer Hemisphere. Not a Hemipteran fly? Let's predict the trajectory of that CME, Coronal Mass Ejection a release of magnetic fields with plasma from our Sun, often displaying aurorasduring this full moon at equinox.
Can it interfere with the signal to our eBike battery? How do I find the pi on this keyboard? Wherhe have you been? Our Silky Way heads in a collision course toward our neighbor galaxy. Then we were encouraged to meditate on smoothies. What would you select? What vitals would you plant in your garden? Feem, think about vitality in motion. We didn't forget your ahha lessons on chi ball expansion during alternate nostril exhales.
Alfanda chimes in, "It's the curvature of White Gravity that enables the mmmuscles around my belt vessel to contract and expand. The Inner Hemisphere revolves revealing the local comet. Who is that watching it? From there, she snaps a photo of the comet in the pre-dawn sky above her bedroom window.
I peer into the lens. One speck of light with a faint tail appears to be reflecting onto the surface of a Doublewide. ZG Daqlen wants the tree plugged in. Daqlen places sister Kwelly's hat across a bough, romps into the hallway and returns with his toothbrush which he hangs on the tree next to a dangling balloon, decorations of his choosing. He gazes at the spruce needles. What is stirring there? Alpha is a relative of e, the elementary charge.
E strengthens family ties between the particles and their electromagnetic fields, including the charge in your eBike battery. The tree would break apart and likely rearrange itself into different shapes as protons repel each other. Fom measures the cosmic pressure. He observes how the tropospheric front, each part of which has the same statistical turbulence as the whole, effects biotopographic movement. Fanda covers the eBikes with geodesic tarps. Chore completed, s he skips playfully across Crater Poona, her feet etching a large triangle onto its rust red floor.
She sidesteps then spins degrees like an abrupt wind. F anda etches, steps and twirls, over and over, in repetitive choreographic patterns.
This meteorological fractal is in the shape of a von Koch Snowflake. While my Trippplets record subsurface waves in the hollow, Ibemee, recently retired from eBike touring, continues census work from his abode at K Aarhst. Symmetric Reconnection. Perhaps my thoughts were caught in a Solar wind that curved across magnetic fields of the the Inner Hemisphere, reconnected symmetrically on the night side to display its aurora, then continued the gravitational push to my Hemisphere.
Attempting to recall recent eBike ventures, I am interrupted by a familiar voice. It's Ubeyou's voice, of course. You seem Feem, tell me about this seismic event," I respond. Alfeem begins. It is difficult for me to listen to my dear Alfeem. Why have my thoughts been distracted? Wait, I'll check the ebsite. It's been moonths since I wrote an entry.
I whisper to Ubeyou, "Can you remind me what has happened recently? He updates me on 1 Teve's report about Hempshire fashion trends.
Botta bumps me across a network of fractures. My sacrum is too old for this. I'm tired of uneven terrain. Ahead, a shield volcano, gently risen from the surface of central Elysium, looks like a giant toe. As we fill space with shapes, one of our polygons falls short of degrees. Our quilt begins to curve as we continue sewing this pattern.
Soon it twists into a 3D multi holed pseudospherical hat. Our eBike wheels follow the pattern of Kepler's lenten pretzel as we explore the equatorial quadrangles. But he could not observe the paths of hypervelocity stars ejected from the black hole area, nor the super speedy stars streaming from the magellenic cloud toward our galaxy's center.
Of course, tachyons, from the greek tachys meaning "swift. But only one field of these hypothetical particles is believed to exist that permit superluminal speeds. Via antitelephone this sentence would reach you before the thought is uttered, tachyonically speaking.
Our eBike tires hum along the surface of hiddenite, a shiny green chromium spodumene from the Greek meaning "burnt to ash" refering to the grayish white ash formed when this mineral is ignited. Hum hum rhum.
We pull over for a brief EXO lesson in the shade of a nearby crater. Here at Oxia Palus, we are searching for electron donors of inorganic compounds, the Lithotrophs. He leaps off the eBike and rubs his finger across the specimen. The leaflike colony extends from the ledge into a fissure, then to the subsurface by growing through the grains of rock. As amateur lichenologists, we speculate that a sample of this composite organism, along with its cousins, the Lithotrophs eaters of rocktravelled by meteor during early eons from Oxia Palus to biosynthesize in your neighborhood.
Halfway to our destination we spin across another dry riverbed. The snake stops to sun itself where many generations of snakes warmed their skins. There, the Congaree tribe, now extinct, maintained harmony in the watershed with their unique language that flowed like whirling eddies. Our snake continues its journey to the river's end where many Inner Hemispherean stories end, struggling to sustain bottomland forests. Trace the Trajectory.
Debris of the disintegration is displaced by a significant distance. Some debris decays instantaneously. Which is difficult since it likely mmmoved in an unconventional geommmetric pathway. For exammmple, ZG Daqlen's leftover birthday cake decays into Alfeem interrupts, "But ahha collision or decay implies energy, and ahha energy flows uni-directionally in ahha non-cyclic pathway.
Blue sun. Rust red caramel sky. Dusk displays unforgetable light diffusion from dust particles at the horizon of our Outer Hemisphere. Elsewhere in the Sol system, sunset makes memories: The Wootite takes the hand of his companion with a fond thought of their excursions to Black Mount.
Shawnam at Homescape 50 remounts his eBike cells during scarlett mie scattering at his horizon. The Bearview family takes a photo of Quelly in the produce basket hanging on the wall, as colors of dusk diffuse onto their rooftop Mie scattering into vapor particles gives Inner Hemispherean clouds their midday puffy white. You wouldn't find black walnuts in the shading of trees if light did not scatter. Dimensionless parameters govern the flow of water making waves inside Daqlen's bucket.
The water rotates in the direction of his motion as he scuttles to the potted blue basil. After an eBike tour of Solis Planum, we relax.
We swirl our mugs of magma tea. The foam on top rotates in the opposite direction of our motion. What makes it happen is Oeodynamics, the physix of a swirling action, a complex equation here and on Daqlen's Hemisphere.
My dear Alfanda and Ubeyou disagree about stone probing. He would like to use the stones to heal her eBike injuries. She is reluctant to try the probing. I, as well, am unable to convince her. Even before the reign of the Yellow Emperor, bian shyr stones were used successfully to adjust circulation," explains Ubeyou. Alfanda agrees. She lies down on our mat made of dehydrated woven fungus ribbons. Ubeyou arranges his collection of crystalline quartz that he found at the extinct Syrtis Major volcano.
Using the tip of a stone, he presses it onto the surface of her skin at points along the linking meridian, from the left ankle to hip. After hours of probing and lessons on thread breathing, Alfanda's wounds begin to heal. Entering the Coprates Quadrangle, we spin steadily between the globules of plagioclase feldspar. Alas, nightmares at cease. Heaviness in the air evaporates beyond the Hemispheres into the Heliosphere where radiating spiral winds carry it with alpha waves 8 billion miles to Termination Shock, the zone in which particles de-accelerate to slower than the speed of sound, down to speeds of spinning eBike wheels.
Alas, thanks to Loraine's det ermination, the anxieties of Gramma have relocated to Green Grain Moon Soon. Grains of teosinte bulge inside their husks like the central region of galaxies. Their stalks expand interminably skyward. Intergalactic clouds block the view of planetary and lunar hemispheres lining up at horizons across the inner Sol System. Our eBike wheels spin interminably across this rust red terrain. No sky. No glowing circles nor crescents. We imagine that our moon Phobos shines as green as the ripening grains.
Caves are cool, about 55 degrees. Those black skinned genomes are categorized as the earliest and purest hominid signature. About years ago, a mother in Lucy's lineage dreamed about exotic hominids, interbred with a Denisovan giving birth to Denise, making your father's lineage highly heterozygous, meaning that his ancestral parents come from entirely different hominin species," I explain.
Magnetic Definitions. Cosmic Murmurations. Twisting photon patterns in the Corkscrew galaxy, what a fantastic display in that parsec of our sky. The murmuration of the planetary magnetic field interacting with the solar magnetic field makes us dizzy.
Soon the flock will disburse to their overnigh perches. Quelly spreads her toes in arrangements of motion that only an infant is capable of. Mother's soft murmurs puts her to sleep. Birth of the New Physix. For every action there is a consequence.
And every reaction is consequential. Fussion of two gammmete cells nine mmmoonths ago generated a consequential fetus that formmmed into Quelly, our newborn half neice," announces Alfanda. This condition was caused by decay of a free neutron unstable as its lifespan is only seconds that escaped from a nucleus during fertilization. Energy from the disappearing neutron was conserved, so that the resulting stable proton has slightly less mass than the aforementioned neutron. He is teaching EXO school class tday.
I realize that Quelly's extra proton gives her abilities to design balanced eBike batteries and to recondition the Old Physix. And I ammm intuitively certain that big brother Daqlen will gift her the perfectly stable feather that he found. What confuses mmme is the mmmathemmmatics. As cells mmmultiply in the wommmb, aren't they really dividing?
Meteoroides from Kuiper. Seasonal dust storms have subsided. Our eBikes recharge in the rising sun. Our mica coated protective gear is safety clipped. Parking areas on the Brew Ridge are full. Meteor watchers hope for a cloudless midnigh. Camlin of the Bearview district observes a reddish glow streaking halfway across the sky. In a previous millenium, early astronomers watched the brightest star explode, eqivalent to 10 Suns across our Silky Way.
This was considered the demise of Eta Carinae; however, it's shine did return amidst news of fossilized honey bee hives, pollarding treetops and kwantum paradoxes. Today the eBike astronomers realize that their sister planet's population surpasses hemispheric capacity. Alfom looks through the viewing crevice and remarks, "Even without a telescope It is apparhent that ourh sisterh planet is in extrheme distrhess. Not as blue, not as green, and where is all the rich brown humus soil?
Find it on your droid. We continue our EXO experiment with excited atoms. During fractional decay a system of excited atoms emits light and does not emit light at the same time. We predict, at ultra cold temperatures, that a lazer beam from our eBike can trap an excited atom in a photonic crystal whereby that excited atom can be in a state of excitement and not excited simultaneously.
The problem is Our subsurface lab does not have the capability of manufacturing a photonic crystal Spontaneous Emissions. Toddling Hemisphereans chase the rush of water emitted from fountains at Splashville Park. ZGB Daqlen waits for the fountain in front of him to spurt as water from behind rushes down his backside. Parental Hemisphereans keep one eye on splashing and the other on the LEAF stage from where performers emit their talents: the silver statue girl who taps her snare with each tip, the Free Planet group combining odd meter with string trio,it the Hoopman rotating in unlimited axes, Banjoman with bow, the stilt troupe parading to spontaneous rhythms of Afrik We are not at that festival, of course.
My eBike family and I remain subsurface of Gale Crater, creating a wave of matter emitted by an excited atom from where a light wave is generally emitted. This phenomenon is called spontaneous emissions, which will be demonstrated by our local connection at the next LEAF event. Is your EXO planet icy or rocky? Gaseous or spewing lava?
We, the eBike crew, while sheltered from the rust red dust storm, uncover mysteries of your EXO home and of the Bioverse using high resolution spectra and albedos- light reflected by a surface.
Surprisingly, Inner Hemisphere is the brightest orbiter," Ubeyou explains to the Trippplets. Or slowly, slowly," said the Rabbit to Einstein's snail. Said the Snail to Schrodinger's rabbit, "I travel at whatever speed is not forbidden. Whatever is not forbidden, becomes compulsory, Frigid Digits - Street Eaters - Rusty Eyes And Hydrocarbons (CD). Alfanda raises her hand. When the waters receded, shrinking sediment settled, transforming into spectacuar septarian concretions of barite and calcite crystals, solid as an eBike battery.
We can go exploring for geodes at a dried surface lake bed when the dust storm recedes. But no, it's not likely to find septaria in our subsurface lakes," I reply.
Teve of the Hempshire district presents his thesis on family expansion entitled "Time Accelerates. A written or verbal presentation is required for Teve's successful passage to the Septuagenarian realm. So who is your real great great grandfather? Only your geneticist knows, but not for sure. Because- the position of a person or an object such as a wave eminating from a pulsar and the speed of his action cannot be measured precisely at the same time.
His Big Bing theory applies to fertilization, the beginning of new life, as well as to the astrophysical beginning of newly born time. Class sets up the sonagraph to measure seismic velocity of rock composition below ancient tectonic plates. We detect normal speed, then slightly faster sound waves in the shape of an inverted mountain, which is colder and less dense than the mantle around it.
My Trippplets slide down a magma vapor stream that condenses onto the rust red rock floor of this subsurface tunnel. They ride on a eBike tube raft that has been tested for inertia safety. They arrive at the trailhead via roadways 40, 32 and past the gneiss cliff, keeping left of the incident investigation site and bearing away from the christian preparedness supply store to park at Axterb.
Hiking the Old Growth Grove brings the SciTavers into patches of goatsbeard lichen, buckeye saplings, indian cucumbers and snakeskin orchids. They stare at the ancient siverbell with chocolate shavings bark. They marvel at the yellow birch rooting itself above ground into a decayed chestnut stump.
Friend of Spores finds edible oyster mushrooms clinging to a fallen log, colorful chantrelles with white interiors, boletus thumbprints, lactarius,, and here on the Outer Hemisphere, friends of eBike ventures are amazed by the varieties of rust red subsurface fungi.
We forage responsibly and process scientifically to remove chitons. This occurs once every thousand years as subatomic particles continuously radiate in a pressurized cosmic stream to our planet, faster than a speeding Photon through ice, from distant massive Blazars. Certainly, something is happening beyond astro kwantum equations and advanced eBike mechanics. Minus Centigrade keeps precipitation in the liquid phase which forms methane mud on the surface of that moon.
Sometimes local eBike wheels get stuck in water mud. When it stops raining, ZG Daqlen leaves prints on the fluvial patterns along Eaverlake. Can his soles be fossilized there? Happy 13 billionth Birthday to quasar P And it's the th Anniversary of Nicola Tesla's alternating current. Ubeyou lengthens his periscopic lense through a small opening in the ceiling of our subsurface shelter.
He props it with repurposed eBike spokes. Indeed, the stars in the Blob are diffuse. NGC i s practically transparent. We can clearly observe galaxies behind it. Did some massive comets take away NG's dark matter during formation? The proteins in these fungi can remove radiation and nuclear waste, reducing chromosonal abnormalities in animal blood. Imagine that you are an ancient marine worm that exploded to life as a result of diverse flora exhaling abundant oxygen for all creatures to share.
You, with other Cambrian Bioturbators of the Inner Hemisphere, engineered ecosystems on ocean floors, but at the same time disturbed the ecology by burrowing into previously undisturbed microbial mats. Your burrows mixed and recycled dead organic material causing a global warming. The atmosphere had changed. Rising CO2 levels resulted in mass extinction of many friendly burrowers that your family had encountered during those prosperous one hundred thousand years of seabed bioturbation. While taking shelter from the encircling Outer Hemispheric sand storm, my eBike family and I find fossilized traces of tunnels on the rust red rock wall of this undergroud chamber.
There seems to be tonnes of aliphatic carbon leaking from stars, in vast clouds of greasy electromagnetic radiation. My eBike team intends to design a mechanism that filters undesirable grease and radiation from interstellar space.
Every quantum particle of the net is entangled to the eighteenth degree for instantaneous communications as to the amounts of carbon that is being captured. The chains of aliphatic hydro carbons would reconfigure into rings of aromatic carbons during this filtering process. A desirable aromatic oil, to be available on all Hemispheres, would be marketed as Carbon Rapture. Pollution cannot escape a black hole. Nothing can escape it, rhight? Our storm shelter is a subsurface chamber below chaotic terrain of this equatorial quadrangle.
Magma vapor streams from a fissure where the rock wall and floor of the chamber adjoin. We collect the vapor, let it condense and enjoy a mug of magma tea. I'mmm tired of listening to everything scientific. We brake, then dismount from our eBikes. Visibility here at Xanthe Terre is as far across as the Bioverse. We observe these G Objects in the center section of our Silky Way. The visibility shifts suddenly to zero. We rush to an overhang that leads subsurface.
Amateur Anthecologist. On his first solo climb over the crib rail and out the back door, ZG Daqlen watches the early morning pollenators of his hemisphere's Bearview district. Under the eave a solitary mason bee, who does not sting, builds its nest from the garden bed clay. A slow flying beetle returns from his feast on rhododendron blooms. The bumble's buzz hits the frequency that releases pollen on the tomato anther.
Wow, Daq is learning flower ecology before Daddy discovers that he escaped his bedroom. In other districts, the midge fly pollenates chocolate, the metallic green sweat bee gathers floral resources from multiple plant species and the Monarch requires milkweed during migration. I then took a pocket knife and scraped off the loose rust and paint.
I scraped it down to the point where there was a solid paint all around the edge of the area to be repaired. I placed toothpicks into the screw holes so they would not get filled with the POR I then masked off the area with blue masking tape leaving a small area of the solid paint showing. I then sanded the solid paint edge down so that when I put the POR 15 on there would not be a visible line where they joined.
If you use the POR 15 read all of the instructions and follow all of their safety precautions. I used the Marine clean first then used the Prep and Ready next following the instructions. Next I applied the POR 15 let it dry about two and a half hours and applied a second coat. I let it dry overnight. After letting it dry overnight I sanded it down blending the edges so there was not a visible line where they joined.
I then sprayed two coats of the epoxy spray paint on the repair. The paint matched pretty close to the original color. I noticed that the water looked like it had leaked out of the corner of the tray causing the rust so I sealed the area with silicon. Put the molding back on and the tray back in and the repair was a success.
This is not about how to do it, but it is about how I did them. Question 11 months ago. I have a fridge with a similar rust area, but not quite as bad
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