The Distributor The distributors are the people who look after the distribution of the film in different parts of the country. A distributor may buy the all India right and sell again to sub-distributors in each territory. Or the distributor himself may release the film in each territory.
Before corporatization, since resources were limited only major territory like Mumbai was retained by the main distributor and the rest were sold to sub-distributors. The buying of the film from the producer happened on two models. First is when the distributor bought the film before the film by a certain amount making table profits for the producer. Hence all risk was transferred to the distributor. If the film flopped, the distributors lost all the money.
Only those films whose success was almost guaranteed were sold on this basis. The second one is films are bought on commission basis.
The risk mainly lies with the producer. On success of a film, the distributor gets a certain commission. On failure of a film, the producer lost most of the money. The Exhibitors They are the cinema owners. Since advent of multiplex cinema is very recent, the cinema viewing was restricted to single screen cinemas.
A lot of distributors owned a lot of cinemas. So when they had to release a film, those cinemas got a priority. Other cinemas had to be booked on rent basis. A particular amount of money was paid as rent to the cinema hall owner.
If the film became a success, the distributors took maximum share. The distributors lost money whatever amount it was. Method of Working Before corporatization, Hindi Film production worked on informal basis. There was no documentation of contracts. Mostly it was done by verbal agreement and mutual relationship. Actors after establishing themselves worked only in their comfort zone.
There was no prominence given to bound script. In fact most films were signed even without a script. Not much importance was given to continuity of a film. There are many films made in the past where the lead actor sported variant looks often out of sync with the script.
Since there is no bound script, the lines were often written on the sets. Sometimes it led to insecurity among lead actors which adversely affects the film. Many times, the actors would say that whatever was narrated to them the film has turned out completely different.
This often led to creative dissatisfaction. The Underworld Nexus The Mumbai underworld have been known to be involved in the production of several films, and are notorious for their patronization of several prominent film personalities; On occasion, they have been known to use money and muscle power to get their way in cinematic deals.
This was result of failure to attain legitimate source of finance. In 90s, many such links came to fore. Soon after, Divya Bharti died in mysterious circumstances, which many observers felt was doing of the underworld. The underworld acquired money by illegal means such as extortion, Rab Rakha - Gulshan Kumar - Its Rocking 2011 (CD), smuggling.
Many Bollywood personalities were terrorized by the underworld to give money or face terrible consequences. In Januarydirector Rakesh Roshan was attacked but he survived the bullets. Many times, the mafia pressurized actors to do particular film because they had invested money in it.
On other occasions, they promoted many actresses who were their mistresses. The proved example was Monica Bedi who was arrested with underworld don Abu Salem. She is out on bail now. The nexus in film production came to the fore with the film Chori Chori Chupke Chupke. The film was financed by Bharat Shah, but apparently underworld boss Chhota Shakeel had behind the finances. Bharat Shah was arrested and remained in lock for a year. The film was scheduled to be released inbut CBI confiscated the prints.
The film was released a year later and the revenue generated was kept by the court. One of the lead actresses of the film Preity Zinta testified in the court that she received call from the underworld. She was the only Film personality who stuck to her statement. The rest turned hostile. This case showed the murkier shadow that gripped Hindi film industry. Corporatization in India The causes which led to the rise of corporatization are complex and happened over a period of time.
Here are the major events which led to the corporatization of Hindi film industry. Opening of Indian economy: Opening the economy had immediate as well as far reaching effects.
While far reaching effect was high growth and coming of affluent Indian middle class. The immediate effects were de-regularization of television giving rise to private pay channels to be aired through cable and satellite. It not only played Rab Rakha - Gulshan Kumar - Its Rocking 2011 (CD) medium to open Indian eye to global entertainment, it also enhanced the revenue potential for Indian films.
The Hollywood films came to Indian homes and hence the culture of filmmaking was also transferred to Indian audience. Opening the economy also meant release of Hollywood films in Indian theatres almost at the same time. Though in 90s there was not much success of Hollywood films except Jurassic Park and Titanic, the new millennium brought more audience for Hollywood films.
For instance Spiderman 2 earned Rs 10 Crore in its opening weekend despite the release of Hindi super hit film Mujhse Shaadi Karogi on the same week in Now, major Hollywood films are simultaneously released in India and are major hits. The recent examples are and Avatar which overtook the box office performance of many Hindi films. When Hollywood was knocking at its door, Hindi film industry had to inevitably adapt a model which reduces risk, brings more professionalism and synergies all resources.
Hence, corporatization of the industry. Digital Revolution: The 90s decade saw a revolution in information technology that no other times in the past can equal. Internet, Mobiles phones, Computers, Compact Discs all came into existence and it redefined the way we lived life. It also had great impact on the film industry. It led to the rise in Home Entertainment revenue. Internet enabled content like music and movies to be sold through the web which meant more revenues.
The subsequent invention of DVD and Blue ray discs gave more platforms to home entertainment. Satellite TVs reach grew in leaps and bounds. The direct to home services made sure suburban and rural areas where cable TV is not available, get premium channels.
As the volume of viewership increased, the revenue also increased. With time, the prospect of revenue generation grew more and more, the corporate decided to enter the industry. A multiplex has screens ranging from 3 to The ticket rates are triple or 4 times more than single screens. They not only generated more revenues, they also brought new trend with itself.
More screens means more films to keep all of Rab Rakha - Gulshan Kumar - Its Rocking 2011 (CD) occupied implying more demand of films. Hence more films were needed to be produced. It was not practically possible for independent producers to meet the demand which paved way for the formation of corporation. Reaching the hinterland: The advent of cheap pirated CDs which would show the most recent films killed the cinema halls in B and C centres.
The main reason behind this was that films would release in these theatres almost after a month of its release. Meanwhile, the pirated CDs would reach them with couple of days. Most of the cinema halls were shut down. But the advent of digital films gave rise to new digital cinema halls. Rather they download the film through satellite and show through digital projectors. Hence films could be released simultaneously released in hinterland, as there was no need of more physical prints of a film was required, which brought the audience back to theatre.
This also meant more revenues. The industry status meant bank credit was easily available and finances could be raised through other instruments. There was no limit to Foreign Direct Investment which meant foreign studios could produce films in India without any local partnership.
As more money was pumped into the industry, the prices of the top stars went sky high, which became unaffordable to most independent producers.
It was kind of history repeating itself. The time of independent producers was over. With time, the revenue base has grown and adds significant amount of revenue.
Film makers like Karan Johar is perceived to be making films keeping overseas audience in mind. Effects of Corporatization 0 The major and the biggest effect of corporatization was that finance was procured with legitimate means which put an end to underworld era. In fact, after the Chori Chori Chupke Chupke case, there was no news of underworld hand in film production. Earlier, very now and then actors sought special protection.
However, it has changed after corporatization. More control on the supply chain made the process of making films faster. Now films are made within 6 months time. This definitely generates more revenues. Now, actors shoot for only one film at a time and sign a film only after getting a bound script, even when they are just beginners in the industry. Imran Khan, nephew of Super Star Aamir Khan and a promising actor, is just 3 films old and he signs on every page of a script while signing any film.
This makes binding on the director to consult the actor even if he has to change one sentence in the script. A new business model came into play. Corporations who had no filmmaking experience would collaborate with independent producers to make films.
The producers helped in effective execution of the shooting, while the corporate would finance as well as look after into other aspect of the film. At this time, when costs have gone high, there are hardly any independent producers. Most have formed their companies or work with other corporate. During the beginning of the decade top actors like the Khans were paid Rs 1 Crore per film but by the end of the decade, they received as high as Rs 20 Crore per film.
The growth is phenomenal. The ROI is calculated by more capable people to make rightly priced films. It has always paid off for the maverick Khan as he earns more than Rs 35 Crore per film. Recently he signed an endorsement deal with a company for approximately Rs 35 Crore with a company.
The valuation of actors has gone with corporatization and super talented actors like Aamir seem to benefit the most from it. The name Yash Raj is actually the first names of the two phenomenal men who made tremendous contribution to Hindi Cinema. Chopra went on to produce many films independently but with different names and banners.
Perhaps few could know what the man had visualized. Till now for most of the films produced by Chopras were also directed by them. Aditya knew that if he had to build a studio, he needs outside directors. Hence three films were planned with outside directors and subsequently released in The last film of the year was Saathiya a Tamil remake directed by Shaad Ali which went on to become a hit.
The three directors, despite the fate of their films had to make more films for Yash Rab Rakha - Gulshan Kumar - Its Rocking 2011 (CD) as three films contract was signed with each.
There was no release the next year, but Yash Raj came with a bang in with expansion clearly in mind. The first one was Hum Tum directed by Kunal Kohli which went to become a huge hit. With this film, Yash Raj launched it Home Entertainment division. The next film was Dhoom directed by Sanjay Gadhvi which was another super hit. Yash Raj Music level for overseas was launched with this film.
The last film of the year was Yash Chopra directed Veer Zaara starring Chopra favourite Shahrukh Khan, which went to become the highest grosser that year. Yash Raj Music was launched in India with this film. Hence Yash Raj control over all aspect of filmmaking was almost complete.
The distribution arm existed long before and a studio which was under construction then was needed to make it a complete Studio in Hollywood style. Init unveiled its state-of-the-art studio making the process complete. Meanwhile it kept on churning out one hit after another.
It also distributes films produced outside Rab Rakha - Gulshan Kumar - Its Rocking 2011 (CD) own banner. At the moment, Yash Raj Films has 47 titles actively selling in the market. Moreover it has bought the rights of classics created by Raj Kapoor and B R Chopra which will make the library close to titles.
For an eight year old studio, the figures are very good. Music: Piracy has hit the music industry the maximum. The kind of revenue music generated 10 years ago is no longer their despite the growth of the market. In fact it has taken a sharp decline. Hence Yash Raj sells its own music through its label. Yash Raj is known for creating great music, hence with much less investment, they get huge returns. They have tried to buy music of outside production like Jurmbut it has been limited.
Television: It recently made its way to create content for TV. It has five shows on air currently on Sony TV. The studio is used for shooting in-house as well as outside films. Though lately it has not attained the kind of success it had when it had begun, still the company is at able hands and would continue to be the leading studio of the country.
Very secretive about its projects, it has announced to produce 3 films this year, apart from distributing outside films. The Challenges There are many challenges that the corporations have to face to withstand in the industry to survive in the long run.
Uncertainty in filmmaking business: The biggest challenge for a corporate that enters Hindi film industry is uncertainty in film making business. Apparently providing finances does not ensure making a hit film.
Hence a lot of corporations have shut offices and have gone back to their main business. After the initial success, the company went bankrupt and had huge debts which forced Bachchan to enter Hindi cinema again He had officially retired from acting in with the film Khuda Gawah.
It was lesson to be learnt that the industry was yet not ready for corporatization. Had the initial venture been successful, Amitabh Bachchan would have been a pioneer in corporatizing Hindi film industry. Perhaps the time was not right then or the risk associated with making a film Rab Rakha - Gulshan Kumar - Its Rocking 2011 (CD) not well managed.
Piracy: Piracy is a burning issue at this moment. Due to piracy, Bollywood loses hundreds of Crores every year. Piracy happens on two levels — Music and Movies. But seriously, there are some boundaries and I think you have crossed it with that crass joke. True Fact!! So basically our 70 Indians are richer than that of whole of Pakistan lol lol lol!!
We have billionaires and they have only 6. Why are we even comparing? I have been following you since the beginning and this is the worst video of all. The first reason is yes I am Pakistani and I am gonna hate it just like if someone make a video against India. I request you to please remove this video. We across the border love channels like yours and AIB very very much but things like these are only gonna spread hatred and nothing else. You are truly better than this I know!
I wont appreciate any comedy which hurts others. I mean dude seriously you have insulted Pakistan way too much. I guess this is the only TVF video that actually made me think of unsubscribe. These are jokes!!!! Stop taking it personally we need to let this talent grow. If you understand he is equally making fun of India. To the TVF team.
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