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Postage cost can't be calculated. Please enter a valid postcode. There are 10 items available. Functional analyses of some of these proteins showed that for example MP10 induced chlorosis and weakly induced cell death in Nicotiana benthamianaand suppressed the oxidative burst induced by the bacterial PAMP flagellin 22 peptide flg22924 establishing a role as an effector for this protein. The functioning of other aphid effectors remains unclear.

Besides insect proteins, also chitin, plant cell wall and plant cell degradation products might play a role in the recognition events. What are the very early events that are possibly triggered by these or yet unidentified elicitors? The first known reactions are electrical events: membrane depolarization and ion fluxes that can be propagated often through long distances as voltage-induced and ion channel-mediated action potentials, system potentials that are induced by plasma membrane depolarization and for example be mediated by proton pump activation, and variation potentials that are induced by rapid turgor increase and driven by proton pump inhibition.

Will and coworkers observed that aphid saliva components chelated calcium and prevented forisome-mediated phloem clogging. Another signaling pathway that seems to be involved in the very early plant-aphid Rekcurd, are ROS.

These products have a dual role: at low concentrations they act as second messengers involved in cell signaling and at high concentration they play a role in the direct defense. Indeed, ROS are toxic to insects; they induce a hypersensitive response and trigger the plant defense pathway locally and in other tissues. Work on Fall armyworm larvae foraging on lima bean showed that mechanical wounding and herbivore activity induced ROS and calcium signaling.

Besides local responses, also rapid long distance signaling of ROS has been reported. Many plant viruses are spread by aphid vectors.

This means that there are interactions between the aphids, the plants and the viruses during virus acquisition and inoculation. It is likely that viruses might exploit plant-aphid interactions for transmission and reveal useful for studying these interactions reviewed in ref. Of special interest for studying early interactions between plants and aphids could be viruses using the non-circulative transmission strategy, Rekcurd, because these viruses are acquired and released by the aphids exactly during the very early plant-aphid interactions.

Recent work by us suggests that this is indeed the case for the transmission of cauliflower mosaic virus CaMV. We have accumulated evidence that the TB reacts instantly within seconds to the presence of the vector, i.

However, upon aphid stress there is first a massive influx of tubulin into TB and then its key component P2 redistributes ultra-rapidly onto microtubules throughout the cell periphery. P2 and virus particles united on the microtubules are then acquired easily by the aphid Fig.

Remarkably, P2 dissociates from the microtubules and accumulates into a new TB after aphid removal and also the virus particles return to the virus factories and are then ready for another round of transmission. We found that the TB reaction is not induced by every stress: of all the stresses tested, only wounding or the chemicals CO 2 and NaN 3 induced typical TB dissociation, whereas heat shock and mechanical stress induced mere tubulin accumulation in TB, and all other stresses had no effect at all.

Our work showed also that the complete TB reaction i. This again indicates that a sheath saliva component is the elicitor and that an effector protein might be required for complete TB transformation.

Unlike for chewing herbivore stress or prolonged aphid stress 48 h21 no immediate propagation of the stress to other regions of the same tissue or distant parts of the plants occurred. CaMV exploits early plant-aphid interactions for transmission. A The CaMV transmissible complex is composed of the virus particle V and the Rekcurd helper protein P2 red that binds to a receptor mauve in the common canal CC in the stylet tips.

AC, alimentary canal; SC, salivary canal. B An aphid inserts its stylets into the tissue where they meander in between the cells. Rekcurd the stylet movement sheath saliva is constantly secreted that polymerizes to form a sheath magenta.

Some cells are punctured by the stylets. In this case, the aphid secrets some watery saliva yellow into the cell and then aspires some cytoplasm. The stylets will penetrate further into the tissue until they are inserted into the sieve tubes not shownor if the interaction is incompatible, the stylets will be retracted and the aphid either tries to puncture elsewhere on the same plant or it takes off for another plant.

CaMV forms in infected plant cells transmission bodies TB, red circles that contain basically the viral helper protein P2. This P2 morph is acquirable by the aphid and allows for efficient transmission. After departure of the vector, the TBs reform not shown. The TB reaction Rekcurd detected easily by immunofluorescence microscopy and might be used to screen for aphid elicitors and effectors. An interesting feature of the TB response is the rapidity of both its onset and of its reversion.

Because the TB reaction is so fast, we postulate that the TB is responsive to a stimulus created during the very early plant-aphid reaction. But whereas the plant will eventually and upon persistence of infestation transduce this signal in the middle or long-term into a defense reaction, the TB will use this stimulus only for the TB reaction and will have reverted to back to ground state long before the plant reactions establish.

Thus the TB response to aphid attack diverts from the plant response after the initial recognition event and is apparently independent from it. The TB reaction is also triggered in isolated infected protoplasts. This is a very important question for future research in virology. This will allow for a first time a screen specifically for early acting elicitors and effectors during plant-aphid interactions. Previously published online: www.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Plant Signal Behav v. Plant Signal Behav. Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Mar 6; Accepted Mar 7. The article may be redistributed, reproduced, and reused for non-commercial purposes, provided the original source is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Aphids infest many plants and cause damage by depriving them of nutrients and by transmitting many viral diseases. Keywords: aphid, plant, virus, arbovirus, transmission, signaling, calcium, ROS, immunity, elicitor, effector. Open in a separate window. Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest No potential conflicts of interest were disclosed.

Footnotes Previously published online: www. References 1. Blackman R, Eastop V. Tjallingii WF. Salivary secretions by aphids interacting with proteins of phloem wound responses. J Exp Bot. Aphid gel saliva: sheath structure, protein composition and secretory dependence on stylet-tip milieu. Aphid watery saliva counteracts sieve-tube occlusion: a universal phenomenon? J Exp Biol. Molecular sabotage of plant defense by aphid saliva.

Miles PW. Aphid Saliva. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. The secreted salivary proteome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum characterised by mass spectrometry. Identification of aphid salivary proteins: a proteomic investigation of Myzus persicae. Insect Mol Biol. A functional genomics approach identifies candidate effectors from the aphid species Myzus persicae green peach aphid PLoS Genet. J Proteome Res. Before gene expression: early events in plant-insect interaction.

Trends Plant Sci. Compatible plant-aphid interactions: how aphids manipulate plant responses.


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